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Slide 1 - Evolutionary Concepts: Variation and Mutation 6 February 2003
Slide 2 - Definitions and Terminology Microevolution Changes within populations or species in gene frequencies and distributions of traits Macroevolution Higher level changes, e.g. generation of new species or higher–level classification
Slide 3 - Gene Section of a chromosome that encodes the information to build a protein Location is known as a “locus”
Slide 4 - Allele Varieties of the information at a particular locus Every organism has two alleles (can be same or different) No limit to the number of alleles in a population
Slide 5 - Zygosity Homozygous: Two copies of the same allele at one locus Heterozygous: Two different alleles at one locus
Slide 6 - Genotype Genetic information contained at a locus Which alleles are actually present at a locus Example: Alleles available: R and W Possible genotypes: RR, RW, WW
Slide 7 - Phenotype Appearance of an organism Results from the underlying genotype
Slide 8 - Phenotype Example 1: Alleles R (red) and W (white), codominance Genotypes: RR, RW, WW Phenotypes: Red, Pink, White
Slide 9 - Phenotype Example 2: Alleles R (red) and w (white), simple dominance Genotypes: RR, Rw, ww Phenotypes: Red, Red, white
Slide 10 - Dominant and Recessive Alleles Dominant alleles: “Dominate” over other alleles Will be expressed, while a recessive allele is suppressed Recessive alleles: Alleles that are suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele
Slide 11 - Gene Pool The collection of available alleles in a population The distribution of these alleles across the population is not taken into account!
Slide 12 - Allele frequency The frequency of an allele in a population Example: 50 individuals = 100 alleles 25 R alleles = 25/100 = 25% R = 0.25 is the frequency of R 75 W alleles = 75/100 W = 75% W = 0.75 is the frequency of W
Slide 13 - Allele frequency Note: The sum of the frequencies for each allele in a population is always equal to 1.0! Frequencies are percentages, and the total percentage must be 100 100% = 1.00
Slide 14 - Other important frequencies Genotype frequency The percentage of each genotype present in a population Phenotype frequency The percentage of each phenotype present in a population
Slide 15 - Evolution Now we can define evolution as the change in genotype frequencies over time
Slide 16 - Genetic Variation The very stuff of evolution! Without genetic variation, there can be no evolution
Slide 17 - Pigeons
Slide 18 - Guppies
Slide 19 - Why is phenotypic variation not as important? Phenotypic variation is the result of: Genotypic variation Environmental variation Other effects Such as maternal or paternal effects Not completely heritable!
Slide 20 - Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Five conditions under which evolution cannot occur All five must be met: If any one is violated, the population will evolve!
Slide 21 - HWE: Five conditions No net change in allele frequencies due to mutation Members of the population mate randomly New alleles do not enter the population via immigrating individuals The population is large Natural selection does not occur
Slide 22 - HWE: 5 violations So, five ways in which populations CAN evolve! Mutation Nonrandom mating Migration (Gene flow) Small population sizes (Genetic drift) Natural selection
Slide 23 - Math of HWE Because the total of all allele frequencies is equal to 1… If the frequency of Allele 1 is p And the frequency of Allele 2 is q Then… p + q = 1
Slide 24 - Math of HWE And, because with two alleles we have three genotypes: pp, pq, and qq The frequencies of these genotypes are equal to (p + q)2 = 12 Or, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
Slide 25 - Example of HWE Math Local population of butterflies has 50 individuals How many alleles are in the population at one locus? If the distribution of genotype frequencies is 10 AA, 20 Aa, 20 aa, what are the frequencies of the two alleles?
Slide 26 - Example of HWE math With 50 individuals, there are 100 alleles Each AA individual has 2 A’s, for a total of 20. Each Aa individual has 1 A, for a total of 20. Total number of A = 40, out of 100, p = 0.40 Each Aa has 1 a, = 20, plus 2 a’s for each aa (=40), = 60/100 a, q = 0.60 (Or , q = 1 - p = 1 - 0.40 = 0.60)
Slide 27 - Example of HWE math What are the expected genotype frequencies after one generation? (Assume no evolutionary agents are acting!)
Slide 28 - Example of HWE math What are the expected genotype frequencies after one generation? (Assume no evolutionary agents are acting!) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p = 0.40 and q = 0.60
Slide 29 - Example of HWE math What are the expected genotype frequencies after one generation? (Assume no evolutionary agents are acting!) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p = 0.40 and q = 0.60 AA = (0.40) X (0.40) = 0.16 Aa = 2 X (0.40) X (0.60) = 0.48 aa = (0.60) X (0.60) = 0.36
Slide 30 - Mutation Mutation is the source of genetic variation! No other source for entirely new alleles
Slide 31 - Rates of mutation Vary widely across: Species Genes Loci (plural of locus) Environments
Slide 32 - Rates of mutation Measured by phenotypic effects in humans: Rate of 10-6 to 10-5 per gamete per generation Total number of genes? Estimates range from about 30,000 to over 100,000! Nearly everyone is a mutant!
Slide 33 - Rates of mutation Mutation rate of the HIV–AIDS virus: One error every 104 to 105 base pairs Size of the HIV–AIDS genome: About 104 to 105 base pairs So, about one mutation per replication!
Slide 34 - HIV-AIDS Video
Slide 35 - Rates of mutation Rates of mutation generally high Leads to a high load of deleterious (harmful) mutations Sex may be a way to eliminate or reduce the load of deleterious mutations!
Slide 36 - Types of mutations Point mutations Base-pair substitutions Caused by chance errors during synthesis or repair of DNA Leads to new alleles (may or may not change phenotypes)
Slide 37 - Types of mutations Gene duplication Result of unequal crossing over during meiosis Leads to redundant genes Which may mutate freely And may thus gain new functions
Slide 38 - Types of mutations Chromosome duplication Caused by errors in meiosis (mitosis in plants) Common in plants Leads to polyploidy Can lead to new species of plants Due to inability to interbreed
Slide 39 - Effects of mutations Relatively speaking… Most mutations have little effect Many are actually harmful Few are beneficial
Slide 40 - How can mutations lead to big changes? Accumulation of many small mutations, each with a small effect Accumulation of several small mutations, each with a large effect One large mutation with a large effect Mutation in a regulatory sequence (affects regulation of development)
Slide 41 - Normal fly head
Slide 42 - Antennapedia fly
Slide 43 - Random mating Under random mating, the chance of any individual in a population mating is exactly the same as for any other individual in the population Generally, hard to find in nature But, can approximate in many large populations over short periods of time
Slide 44 - Non-random mating Violations of random mating lead to changes in genotypic frequencies, not allele frequencies But, can lead to changes in effective population size…
Slide 45 - Elephant seal video
Slide 46 - Non-random mating Reduction in the effective population size leaves a door open for the effects of… Genetic Drift!
Slide 47 - Genetic Drift Activity
Slide 48 - This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.