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Slide 1 - Ch. 24 – Interactions of Life Sec. 3 – Interactions within Communities 7th Grade Science Saint
Slide 2 - Objectives Describe how organisms obtain energy for life. Explain how organisms interact. Recognize that every organism occupies a niche.
Slide 3 - Energy Living organisms need a constant supply of energy.
Slide 4 - Energy All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.
Slide 5 - Photosynthesis Some organisms use the Sun’s energy to create energy rich molecules through a process called photosynthesis.
Slide 6 - Product of Photosynthesis Energy rich molecules, usually sugars, serve as food. They are made up of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of the atoms. When the bond is broken, energy is released to fuel life processes.
Slide 7 - Photosynthesis
Slide 8 - Producers A producer is an organism that uses an outside energy source like the Sun to make energy-rich molecules.
Slide 9 - Producers contain chlorophyll Most producers contain chlorophyll, a chemical that is required for photosynthesis.
Slide 10 - Green Plants Green plants are producers
Slide 11 - Chemosynthesis Some producers make energy-rich molecules through a process called chemosynthesis. These organisms are found near volcanic vents in the ocean floor. Inorganic molecules in the water provide the energy source for chemosynthesis.
Slide 12 - Hydrothermal Vents
Slide 13 - Tubeworms
Slide 14 - Consumer A consumer is an organism that cannot make their own energy-rich molecules. Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms. Wolves can’t make their own food. They are consumers. The Cape Buffalo can’t make its own food. It is a consumer.
Slide 15 - Producer or Consumer? Tree Dandelion Weasel Walrus Diatom Algae Bacteria Dog You Rhinoceros
Slide 16 - Consumers There are 4 general types of consumers: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Decomposers
Slide 17 - Herbivores Herbivores – Plant eaters Deer Rabbits Grasshoppers
Slide 18 - Herbivores Zebras eat grass. They are herbivores. Cows are herbivores.
Slide 19 - Herbivores Hippos are herbivores. Rhinos are herbivores.
Slide 20 - Carnivores Carnivores – Meat Eaters – Eat other animals Frogs Spiders Cougars
Slide 21 - Carnivores Lions definitely eat meat! Not all carnivores have razor sharp teeth.
Slide 22 - The Most Vicious Carnivore The Shrew
Slide 23 - Omnivores Omnivores – Eat both plants and animals Bears Pigs Humans
Slide 24 - Omnivores While the panda’s digestive system is that of a carnivore, their diet consists of 99% bamboo. Raccoons are omnivores. They eat both plants and animals.
Slide 25 - Decomposers Decomposers – Consume waste and dead organisms. Decomposers help recycle once-living matter by breaking it down into simple, energy-rich substances. These substances might serve as food for decomposers , be absorbed by plant roots, or be consumed by other organisms. Fungi Bacteria Earthworms Vultures
Slide 26 - Decomposers Mushrooms and other fungi break-down dead decaying matter.
Slide 27 - What type of consumer? Elk Bobcat Mushroom Buzzard Bear Hippopotamus Box Turtle Snapping Turtle Shark Seal
Slide 28 - Food Chain A food chain is a simple model of the feeding relationship in an ecosystem.
Slide 29 - Food Chain For example, shrubs are food for deer, and deer are food for mountain lions. Shrubs are the beginning of the food chain. They receive their energy from sunlight. Because shrubs make their own food through photosynthesis, they are called producers. The deer is the first organism of the food chain to eat the shrub. It is the primary consumer. The mountain lion is the second organism of the food chain. It eats the deer. It is the secondary consumer.
Slide 30 - Food Chain Algae make their own food from sunlight. They are the basis for the food chain in this example.
Slide 31 - Food Chain The first organism in a food chain is always a producer. They make their own food.
Slide 32 - Food Chain
Slide 33 - Food Chain
Slide 34 - Food Chain
Slide 35 - Food Chain
Slide 36 - Food Chain
Slide 37 - Food Chain
Slide 38 - Food Chain
Slide 39 - Food Chain
Slide 40 - Food Chain
Slide 41 - Food Chain
Slide 42 - Symbiosis Not all relationships among organisms involve food. Many organisms live together and share resources in other ways. Any close relationship between species is called symbiosis.
Slide 43 - 3 Types of Symbiosis Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism
Slide 44 - Mutualism Mutualism – A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit.
Slide 45 - Mutualism Examples: Cowbirds and Large Animals Termites and Trichonympha Bees and Flowers
Slide 46 - Cowbirds and Large Animals The cowbird benefits by eating the ticks and mites off the large animal. The large animal benefits from have the parasites removed from them. The birds can also warn them of danger.
Slide 47 - Termites and Trichonympha You probably think termites eat wood; they do – in a way. Termites can’t digest cellulose, which is the main component of wood. Therefore, they get help from a protozoan called trichonympha. This protozoan lives in the gut of the termite. It breaks down the cellulose for the termite. The trichonympha gets a free meal and shelter; the termite is able to eat and receive nutrients from the wood.
Slide 48 - Termite and Trichonympha
Slide 49 - Termite and Trichonympha
Slide 50 - Termite and Trichonympha
Slide 51 - Termite and Trichonympha
Slide 52 - Trichonympha
Slide 53 - Trichonympha
Slide 54 - Bees and Pollen Bees receive nectar from the flowers in order to make honey. As the bees collect nectar, they collect pollen on their body. As they fly to another flower, they pollinate it by dusting the pollen on the flowers stamen.
Slide 55 - Commensalism Commensalism – A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected.
Slide 56 - Commensalism Examples: Clown fish and sea anemones Shark and remora
Slide 57 - Clown Fish and Sea Anemones The clown fish is immune to the stings of the sea anemones tentacles. The clown fish makes its home in the tentacles for protection. The clown fish gets shelter, but the sea anemone gets nothing.
Slide 58 - Shark and Remora The remora hangs around the shark picking up any scraps it may leave. The remora gets food while the shark gets nothing.
Slide 59 - Parasitism Parasitism – A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is harmed.
Slide 60 - Parasitism Examples: Tapeworm and Humans Cuckoo bird and warbler Ticks
Slide 61 - Tapeworm and Humans
Slide 62 - Tapeworms and Humans
Slide 63 - Tapeworms and Humans
Slide 64 - Tapeworms and Humans
Slide 65 - Cuckoo and Warbler
Slide 66 - Cuckoo birds and warblers
Slide 67 - Cuckoo and Warbler
Slide 68 - Cuckoo and Warbler
Slide 69 - Ticks
Slide 70 - Tick
Slide 71 - Even Athletes foot is a parasite
Slide 72 - Parasitism
Slide 73 - Parasitism
Slide 74 - Symbiosis
Slide 75 - Habitat One habitat might contain hundreds or even thousands of species. A rotting log in a forest can be home to many species of insects, including termites that eat decaying wood and ants that feed on the termites. Other species that live on and under rotting log include millipedes, centipedes, spiders, and worms.
Slide 76 - Niche You might think that competition for resources would make it impossible for so many species to live in the same habitat. However, each species has different requirements for its survival. As a result, each species has its own niche. An organism’s niche is its role in its environment – how it obtains food and shelter, finds a mate, cares for its young, and avoids danger.
Slide 77 - Niche
Slide 78 - Predator and Prey An organism’s niche includes how it avoids being eaten and how it finds or captures its food. Predators are consumers that capture and eat other consumers. The prey is the organism that is captured by the predator.
Slide 79 - Predator and Prey The deer is being eaten by the python. It is prey. The python has captured and is eating the deer.
Slide 80 - Predator and Prey Predator Prey
Slide 81 - Predator and Prey Predator Prey
Slide 82 - Predator and Prey Prey Predator
Slide 83 - Predator and Prey This alligator is the predator. It eats the python. This python is the prey. It is eaten by the alligator.
Slide 84 - Predator and Prey This python swallowed the alligator. It is the predator. This alligator was swallowed by the python. It was the prey. The alligator did get some revenge. The meal was too big for the python and caused it bust.
Slide 85 - Lynx vs. Hare
Slide 86 - Predator/Prey Relationship
Slide 87 - Predator/Prey Relationship
Slide 88 - Predator/Prey Relationship The presence of predators usually increases the number of different species that can live in an ecosystem. Predators limit the size of prey populations. As a result, food and other resources are less likely to become scarce, and competition between species is reduced.
Slide 89 - Cooperation Individual organisms often cooperate in ways that improve survival.
Slide 90 - Whitetail Deer Cooperation Whitetail Deer – Whitetail deer will lift their tail to alert others when they feel threatened.
Slide 91 - Ants and Honeybees Ants and honeybees live in social groups. Certain individuals have specific jobs within the colony. Soldiers – Protection of colony Workers – gather food and take care of young (larva)
Slide 92 - Cooperation These cooperative actions improve survival and are a part of the specie’s niche.
Slide 93 - Section Summary All life requires a constant supply of energy.
Slide 94 - Section Summary Most producers make food by photosynthesis using light energy.
Slide 95 - Section Summary Consumers cannot make food. They obtain energy by eating producers and other consumers.
Slide 96 - Section Summary A food chain models the feeding relationships between species.
Slide 97 - Section Summary Symbiosis is any close relationship between species.
Slide 98 - Section Summary Mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism are types of symbiosis.
Slide 99 - Section Summary An organism’s niche describes the ways in which the organism obtains food, avoids danger, and finds shelter.
Slide 100 - Question 1. Explain why all consumers depends on producers for food.
Slide 101 - Question 2. Describe a mutualistic relationship between two imaginary organisms. Name the organisms and explain how each benefits.
Slide 102 - Question 3. Compare and contrast the terms habitat and niche.
Slide 103 - Question 4. A parasite can obtain food only from a host organism. Explain why most parasites weaken, but do not kill, their hosts.
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