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Slide 1 - CS134 Web Design & Development Introduction to the Internet Mehmud Abliz
Slide 2 - Internet, Packets and Routing Internet is a network of computer networks Data is transmitted by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP) Packet – a unit of information carriage Packet switching – process of moving packets from one node (computer device) to another
Slide 3 - A Visualization of Internet
Slide 4 - A Visualization of Internet
Slide 5 - Internet, Packets and Routing At the sender, data is broken into packets and sent to the nearest node (router) At each router, it sends the packet to another router that is closer to the final destination At the receiver, packets are reassembled to get the original data A simple analogy: mailing system
Slide 6 - Mailing System
Slide 7 - TCP/IP and Domain Names Basic task of IP – moving packets as quickly as possible from one router to another Yet, it doesn’t check whether packets are delivered successfully, thus need TCP TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – disassemble/reassemble packets, error checking, ACK packets
Slide 8 - TCP/IP and Domain Names We need some sort of address in order to identify different nodes, as if every house has a mailing address in order to receive mail from others The one used by Internet Protocol is called IP address Every host on the Internet has a unique IP address, made up of four numbers. E.g.., each number is between 0 and 255
Slide 9 - TCP/IP and Domain Names The numbers in an IP address is hard to remember, while names are easier Domain Name System – a mapping between the human-readable name (domain name) of a host and its IP address A domain name consists of two or more parts, e.g. cs.pitt.edu The rightmost label conveys the top-level domain, e.g. edu
Slide 10 - TCP/IP and Domain Names Each label to the left specifies a subdomain, in our example, subdomain is pitt (University of Pittsburgh), and sub-subdomain is cs (computer science). A top-level domain contains of multiple subdomains, each subdomain can contain multiple sub-subdomain, so on. The database contains the mapping between a domain name and an IP address is stored on a DNS server.
Slide 11 - World Wide Web The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. It is created to share files/documents and overcome the barrier of different file formats Hypertext refers to text on a computer that will lead the user to other, related information on demand.
Slide 12 - World Wide Web hypertext documents are created using a special kind of document formatting or “markup” language called HyperText Markup Language (HTML). HTML is sent or received over the network using HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). A browser is a software program which interprets the HTML documents and displays it on the user’s screen.
Slide 13 - URLs and Client-Server Model Each document/resource on the WWW needs to have an identifier in order to be accessed by others. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a URI which provides means of obtaining the resource by describing its network “location”.
Slide 14 - URLs and Client-Server Model Two things are given by the URL Exact location of the document The method or protocol by which to retrieve and display the document Example, http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~mehmud/cs134/index.html http:// – specifies the protocol www.cs.pitt.edu – specifies the host name / domain name /~mehmud/cs134/index.html – specifies the path of the document on the host
Slide 15 - Putting it All Together