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Volcanoes Chapter 5 S6E5: Convection currents cause plate movement which causes geologic activity such as volcanoes. What is a VOLCANO? A weak spot in Earth’s crust ...

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Slide 1 - Volcanoes Chapter 5 S6E5: Convection currents cause plate movement which causes geologic activity such as volcanoes.
Slide 2 - What is a VOLCANO? A weak spot in Earth’s crust where magma comes up to the surface
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Slide 4 - Where are most of Earth’s major volcanoes located? In belts around the Earth’s continents and oceans along plate boundaries One major belt is known as the Ring of Fire, located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean
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Slide 6 - Volcanoes at Divergent Boundaries May form in the ocean at mid-ocean ridges May form on continents at rift valleys
Slide 7 - Example: Great Rift Valley in East Africa
Slide 8 - Volcanoes at Converging Boundaries Form where 2 plates collide: Oceanic  Continental Oceanic  Oceanic The resulting volcanoes create a string of islands called an Island Arc
Slide 9 - Examples of Island Arcs: The Aleutian Islands
Slide 10 - Another Example of an Island Arc: The Carribean Islands
Slide 11 - Volcanic Hot Spots A volcano forms above a Hot Spot when magma erupts through the crust and reaches the surface
Slide 12 - Oceanic Hot Spot: The Hawaiian Islands
Slide 13 - Continental Hot Spot: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
Slide 14 - Volcanic eruption vary depending on the viscosity of the magma What is viscosity? The resistance of a liquid to flow. The greater the viscosity, the thicker the flow Depends on the amount of silica (from 50% - 70%)
Slide 15 - Quiet Eruption Volcano erupts quietly Low silica magma has low viscosity and flows easily Example: The Hawaiian Islands
Slide 16 - Explosive Eruption Volcano erupts violently High silica magma, high viscosity, thick and sticky, does not flow – builds up pressure Example: Mt Saint Helens Mount St. Helens about noon on May 18, 1980 after being dormant for 123 years.
Slide 17 - Pyroclastic Flow Volcano erupts violently Hurls out a mixture of hot gases, ash, cinders, & bombs Example: Mayon Volcano, Philippines
Slide 18 - Three Main Types of Volcanoes: 1. Shield Volcano 2. Cinder Cone Volcano 3. Composite Volcano
Slide 19 - Shield Volcano Gradual, build-up of lava Wide, gently sloping mountain Example: Hawaiian Islands Notice the shapes of the shields??? Hummm…
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Slide 21 - Composite Volcano Lava alternates with layers of ash in explosive eruptions Tall, cone-shaped mountain Examples: Mt. Fuji, Japan and Mt. Saint Helens, Washington, USA
Slide 22 - Composite Volcanoes
Slide 23 - Comparing Shield & Composite Volcanoes
Slide 24 - Cinder Cone Volcano Erupts violently, producing ash, cinders, and bombs Loose materials build up around the vent in a steep cone-shaped mountain Example: Pariciutin, Mexico
Slide 25 - Cinder Cone Volcano
Slide 26 - Comparing the shapes of Volcanoes!
Slide 27 - Check out this volcano link… http://mail.colonial.net/~hkaiter/volcanoes.html
Slide 28 - What is a Caldera? Huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain
Slide 29 - Geothermal Activity Hot springs & geysers are types of geothermal activity often found in areas of past or present volcanic activity
Slide 30 - What are hot springs? They form when groundwater is heated by nearby magma or hot rock deep underground
Slide 31 - Which one is a geyser?
Slide 32 - Seriously, what is a geyser? A fountain of water and steam that erupts from the ground Example: Old Faithful at Yellowstone National Park It erupts ‘faithfully’ every 33 – 93 minutes
Slide 33 - Experimenting with Volcanic Eruptions Volcano Info…build & erupt a volcano…have fun! http://kids.discovery.com/games/pompeii/pompeii.html