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Slide 1 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber
Slide 2 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds?
Slide 3 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009
Slide 4 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
Slide 5 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
Slide 6 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server.
Slide 7 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment.
Slide 8 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized
Slide 9 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware
Slide 10 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests
Slide 11 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server.
Slide 12 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance.
Slide 13 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will.
Slide 14 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer)
Slide 15 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology
Slide 16 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16
Slide 17 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses
Slide 18 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware!
Slide 19 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19
Slide 20 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it
Slide 21 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up
Slide 22 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS!
Slide 23 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use
Slide 24 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc.
Slide 25 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009
Slide 26 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26
Slide 27 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27
Slide 28 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software?
Slide 29 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 29 For UWF: What About Research? The Eucalyptus Project From University of California Santa Barbara An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud Linux using Xen for virtualization An apparently open research area: handling data Regular databases apparently don't scale well Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down)
Slide 30 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 29 For UWF: What About Research? The Eucalyptus Project From University of California Santa Barbara An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud Linux using Xen for virtualization An apparently open research area: handling data Regular databases apparently don't scale well Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 30 For UWF: What About Teaching? Our graduates should know about cloud computing / virtualization It will be useful for some applications, though not for all But what are the right learning objectives? Awareness (its there ...) Mechanics (here’s how to instantiate a server ...) Design (how to make a scalable service ...) ???
Slide 31 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 29 For UWF: What About Research? The Eucalyptus Project From University of California Santa Barbara An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud Linux using Xen for virtualization An apparently open research area: handling data Regular databases apparently don't scale well Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 30 For UWF: What About Teaching? Our graduates should know about cloud computing / virtualization It will be useful for some applications, though not for all But what are the right learning objectives? Awareness (its there ...) Mechanics (here’s how to instantiate a server ...) Design (how to make a scalable service ...) ??? For Fall 2009 ... Currently developing a Virtualization / Cloud Computing “module” 1 – 2 class sessions plus an exercise Target courses (November): COP 6990 – Multi-Process Computing (Simmons) CTS 4817 – Web Server Administration (Owsnicki-Klewe) Objectives Awareness and mechanics of EC2 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 31
Slide 32 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 29 For UWF: What About Research? The Eucalyptus Project From University of California Santa Barbara An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud Linux using Xen for virtualization An apparently open research area: handling data Regular databases apparently don't scale well Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 30 For UWF: What About Teaching? Our graduates should know about cloud computing / virtualization It will be useful for some applications, though not for all But what are the right learning objectives? Awareness (its there ...) Mechanics (here’s how to instantiate a server ...) Design (how to make a scalable service ...) ??? For Fall 2009 ... Currently developing a Virtualization / Cloud Computing “module” 1 – 2 class sessions plus an exercise Target courses (November): COP 6990 – Multi-Process Computing (Simmons) CTS 4817 – Web Server Administration (Owsnicki-Klewe) Objectives Awareness and mechanics of EC2 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 31 References (links are current as of September, 2009) VMware Inc., Virtualization Overview, http://www.vmware.com/pdf/virtualization.pdf Todd Hoff, Amazon Architecture, http://highscalability.com/amazon-architecture, Sept. 18, 2007 Intel Corp., Technology brief: Understanding Intel® Virtualization Technology, http://download.intel.com/technology/virtualization/320426.pdf aw2.0 Ltd, Cloud BootCamp March 2009, http://www.aw20.co.uk/help/cloudbootcamp_march2009.cfm 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 32
Slide 33 - 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 1 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Norman Wilde Thomas Huber An opening caveat ... This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation. A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype! But there seems to be something fundamental going on. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 2 Some sun behind the clouds? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 3 Two Technologies for Agility Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 4 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 5 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 6 The Traditional Server Concept System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 7 The Traditional Server Concept Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 8 The Traditional Server Concept Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 9 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 10 Close-up* * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 11 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 12 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 14 The Virtual Server Concept Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 15 Virtualization Status Offerings from many companies e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... Hardware support Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer Virtualization is now a well-established technology So what about Cloud Computing? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 16 Suppose you are Forbes.com You offer on-line real time stock market data Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 17 9 AM - 5 PM, M-F ALL OTHER TIMES Rate of Server Accesses 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 18 Forbes' Solution Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night Pay just $0.10* per server per hour * more for higher capacity servers Let Amazon worry about the hardware! Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step You don’t have to own the hardware You “rent” it as needed from a cloud There are public clouds e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...) A company can create a private one With more control over security, etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 19 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 20 Goal 1 – Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 21 Goal 2 - Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 22 Goal 3 - Stick to Our Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS! 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 23 How Cloud Computing Works Various providers let you create virtual servers Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card You create virtual servers ("virtualization") Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have It will run on a large server farm located somewhere You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice You can shut down instances in a minute or so They send you a bill for what you use 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 24 Any Nasty Details? (loads of them!) How do I pick a provider? Am I locked in to a provider? Where do I put my data? What happens to my data when I shut down? How do I log in to my server? How do I keep others from logging in (security)? How do I get an IP address? Etc. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 25 And One Really Important Caveat* * Cloud BootCamp March 2009 (footnote) How come Amazon? Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved) See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 26 Cloud Computing Status Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice Numerous providers Amazon EC2 imitators ... Just about every major industry name IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ... Major buzz at industry meetings 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 27 So What’s the Take-Away? There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud) Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...) We may need to rethink both our research and teaching 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 28 and software? 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 29 For UWF: What About Research? The Eucalyptus Project From University of California Santa Barbara An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud Linux using Xen for virtualization An apparently open research area: handling data Regular databases apparently don't scale well Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 30 For UWF: What About Teaching? Our graduates should know about cloud computing / virtualization It will be useful for some applications, though not for all But what are the right learning objectives? Awareness (its there ...) Mechanics (here’s how to instantiate a server ...) Design (how to make a scalable service ...) ??? For Fall 2009 ... Currently developing a Virtualization / Cloud Computing “module” 1 – 2 class sessions plus an exercise Target courses (November): COP 6990 – Multi-Process Computing (Simmons) CTS 4817 – Web Server Administration (Owsnicki-Klewe) Objectives Awareness and mechanics of EC2 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 31 References (links are current as of September, 2009) VMware Inc., Virtualization Overview, http://www.vmware.com/pdf/virtualization.pdf Todd Hoff, Amazon Architecture, http://highscalability.com/amazon-architecture, Sept. 18, 2007 Intel Corp., Technology brief: Understanding Intel® Virtualization Technology, http://download.intel.com/technology/virtualization/320426.pdf aw2.0 Ltd, Cloud BootCamp March 2009, http://www.aw20.co.uk/help/cloudbootcamp_march2009.cfm 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 32 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud 33 Where do we go from here? Any ideas to keep us out of the rain?