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Slide 1 - Is the ‘awkward partner’ about to leave the EU? The UK’s relationship with the EU Mike Walsh Economics Academic Course Director Coventry University Ref: UK EU relationship March 2013
Slide 2 - (1) Introduction The UK joined the EEC (EU from 1993) in 1973 Late: over 20 years after the EEC was formed! Within a year the UK had built up a reputation for being the ‘awkward partner’ ( George S, 1998) opposed many EEC initiatives took an independent view was disruptive We will consider why the UK was considered to be the ‘awkward partner’ and why EU exit is on the agenda
Slide 3 - UK attitudes These help explain the UK’s relationship with the EU. Generally, the UK : Is pragmatic Believes in free markets Doesn’t want to give up sovereignty Wants widening of EU Wants less integration. No federalism Relevant today Gordon BROWN (PM) signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 EU splits some UK political parties
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Slide 5 - (2) UK and Europe: The early years
Slide 6 - 1945-57: Preparation Positions of countries UK 3 circles UK condescending? intergovernmental approach ok USA Empire Europe
Slide 7 - France wanted decline in German industrial power Germany wanted acceptance
Slide 8 - European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC) Schuman Plan (9th May1950) Monnet’s ideas sectoral approach Iron & steel major sector France - Germany ECSC Treaty of Paris 1951 - est. 1952 6 members Supranational from beginning UK not want to give up sovereignty
Slide 9 - ECSC to EEC Messina (1955) Extend Benelux model (Spaak) Atomic energy cooperation (Monnet) UK position: don’t get involved Treaty of Rome 1957 (effective 1958) EEC Treaty Euratom Treaty UK: don’t get involved
Slide 10 - EEC Take off and early progress (1958-72) EEC economic success EFTA (1960) EEC Rival Included UK France vetoes UK entry to EEC Finally, success Hague Summit 1969 Agreement for UK to join the EEC UK joined 1/1/73
Slide 11 - (3) UK & The EU Budget A major issue for 40 years
Slide 12 - Budget 2013 CAP Cohesion Competitiveness Rural development Admin External Relations Security & justice
Slide 13 - 1st EU enlargement 1973 UK rebate: major issue UK disruptive Veto in Council Of Ministers (pre SEA 1986) UK major contributor but one of poorest states in 1970’s Reasons CAP Common external tariff (CET) Conflicts
Slide 14 - High CAP expenditure (% budget share) when UK joined EEC in 1973
Slide 15 - Fontainebleu Summit 1984 UK rebate UK rebate issue resurfaced 1998 onwards
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Slide 17 - 2005: Blair wanted CAP reform in return for UK giving up budget rebate UK & France fall out! Outcome: UK gives up some of rebate With conditions
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Slide 20 - Budget issues still exist today David Cameron (UK PM) in EU budget talks 2011: Opposed large increase in EU budget http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11652601 2012/13: Opposes real increase in EU budget for 2014-20 Financial Perspective Budget rebate AGAIN
Slide 21 - (4) Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
Slide 22 - Monetary union ‘’launched’' 1979 European Monetary System EMS EMS - 2 components European currency unit (Ecu) Exchange rate mechanism (ERM) 8/9 countries NOT UK UK eventually joined 1990 BUT, UK exit 1992 September 1992 ‘ERM crisis’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_6560000/newsid_6563000/6563031.stm?bw=bb&mp=wm&news=1&bbcws=1
Slide 23 - Maastricht Treaty 1991 UK & Denmark opt out of Euro Only countries to do so UK set 5 economic tests for joining Failed 4 out of 5 (2003) Political device, not economic
Slide 24 - (5) Social Policy
Slide 25 - UK generally believe in free markets, laissez faire ‘Anglo Saxon’ approach European interference in labour market Social Policy raises costs for firms & makes them uncompetitive E.g. Working Time Directive
Slide 26 - Approaches by selected countries below UK, Ireland – free market Germany, Benelux countries– collective bargaining provides worker protection France, Spain, Portugal, Greece- statutory framework to protect workers rights as weak collective bargaining
Slide 27 - Social Charter 1989 Social policy expanded not legally binding opt out by… Maastricht Treaty Binding on EU States Opt out by……
Slide 28 - Answer these questions relating to Spain Is it easy for a firm to make a worker redundant? How much social tax (%) does a firm pay on wages How many days holiday does the average worker receive? Do you think working more than 48 hours / week is ok? If you lose your job what benefits can you receive?
Slide 29 - (6) What does the UK want from the EU?
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Slide 31 - Free Trade Access to the SINGLE MARKET Very ‘Anglo Saxon’
Slide 32 - Single European Act (SEA) 1986 All trade barriers to be eliminated Aims include Bigger markets for firms Increase efficiency of firms Aid integration Benefit consumers Generally regarded as successful
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Slide 34 - (7) UK: Even more awkward? Exit? David Cameron’s Europe Speech January 2013
Slide 35 - UK renegotiate with EU? ‘cherry pick’ policies Drop which policies? UK want which policies? Hold referendum to leave EU in 2018 if renegotiation fails Why?
Slide 36 - Options if UK leave EU? Renegotiate agreements with EU? Like Switzerland About 200 bilateral agreements Join EEA? Access to single market Like Norway Be like rest of world? Scotland?
Slide 37 - UK in Europe
Slide 38 - (8) Conclusion After 40 years membership Europe still divides UK opinion & splits political parties UKIP is a new anti-EU party UK is still the awkward partner
Slide 39 - References S George, ‘An Awkward Partner: Britain in the European community’ R Baldwin & C Wyplosz, ‘The Economics of European Integration’ http://europa.eu/