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Slide 1 - The Brain: How does it work? Carla Piper, Ed. D.
Slide 2 - Facts about the Brain Weighs approximately 3 pounds Mostly water - 78% Fat - 10% Protein - 8% Soft enough to cut with a butter knife Grapefruit-sized organ Outside of the brain  Convolutions or folds Wrinkles are part of the cerebral cortex Folds allow maximum surface area
Slide 3 - The Nervous System Makes up critical portion of the nervous system Nerve cells connected by nearly 1 million miles of nerve fibers Has the largest area of uncommitted cortex of any species giving humans flexibility for learning. Brain consumes about 20% of the body's energy . The Brain uses about 1/5 of the body's oxygen. The Brain gets about 8 gallons of blood each hour (supplying nutrients like glucose, protein, trace elements, and oxygen). Brain needs 8-12 glasses of water a day for optimal functioning.
Slide 4 - Neuroscience Technology paved the way for understanding how bring works. Enabled researchers to understand and see inside the brain. Brain scanners developed - Brain Imaging Technology Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – Radioactive glucose used to determine activity in different parts of the brain Electroencephalography (EEG) – Electrodes give us readings about electrical output of the brain
Slide 5 - Two Cerebral Hemispheres Left and Right Left Hemisphere Processes things more in parts and sequentially Musicians process music in left hemisphere Right Hemisphere Music and Arts have been considered right-brain "frills" but trained musicians use more left-brain and novice musicians use more right. Higher-level mathematicians, problem solvers, and chess players actually have more right-brained activity, but beginners use more left brain.
Slide 6 - Left and Right Hemispheres Bundles of Nerve Fibers Connect the left and right hemispheres Allow each side of the brain to exchange information more freely New research shows that early concept of left brain/right brain is outdated Neuroscience for Kids http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/split.html
Slide 7 - The Lobes Frontal Lobe Area around your forehead Involved in purposeful acts like judgment, creativity, problem solving, and planning. Parietal Lobe Top back area of the brain Processes higher sensory and language functions Temporal Lobe Left and right side above and around the ears Primarily responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. Some overlap in functions of the lobes. Occipital Lobe Back of the brain Primarily responsible for vision
Slide 8 - Video of Brain Construction Layered construction of a sequence of 3-D anatomical probability maps. Order: Thalamus. Putamen, Caudate, and Insula Cerebellum Temporal lobes Occipital lobes Parietal lobes Frontal lobes http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/demos/animal/
Slide 9 - Learning Changes the Brain Some kind of stimulus to the brain starts the learning process. The stimulus is sorted and processed at several levels. Results in formation of memory.  Either doing something we already know how to do - or we are doing something new. Stimulation is doing something new - lighting up the brain scan. Once a task is learned, the brain lights up less.
Slide 10 - Brain Activity by Age Stages of Development Through Sensory Experiences in the First Year
Slide 11 - The Resting Brain PET Scans Show Brain Function Four Different Slices of the Same Brain Mapping of Cerebral Function Resting Brain Shows No “hotspots” http://www.crump.ucla.edu/software/lpp/clinpetneuro/function.html
Slide 12 - Auditory Activity Subject listened to some music. Increased activity in the PET image containing the auditory cortex. Nonverbal stimuli (music) predominantly activates the nondominant (right) hemisphere. Simultaneous stimulation with language and music would cause a more bilateral activation of the auditory cortex.
Slide 13 - Visual Activity Subject exposed to visual stimulation consisting of both pattern and color. Increased activity in the stimulated brain PET image (arrowhead). Region of increased activity corresponds to the primary visual cortex.
Slide 14 - Thinking Activity Increased activity in the stimulated brain PET image (arrowhead). Region of increased activity corresponds to the frontal cortex.
Slide 15 - Memory Activity Subject required to remember an image for later recall. Increased activity in the stimulated brain PET image (arrowhead) is the hippocampal formation. Region of the brain implicated in learning and memory. Hypocampus integrates sensory information along with amygdala
Slide 16 - Motor or Kinesthetic Activity Motor stimulation of the brain Subject to hop up and down on his right foot. Motor task of a movement of the right foot caused: Cortical metabolic activation of the left motor strip (horizontal arrowhead) Caused supplementary motor cortex (vertical arrow, top). Cerebellum
Slide 17 - Thalamus The thalamus is often thought of as the individual consciousness - the "You" Narrow bands across the top middle of the brain Sensory Cortex - Monitors skin receptors Motor Cortex - Needed for Movement Cerebellum Latin for "the little brain" Back lower area of the brain Responsible for balance, posture, motor movement, and some areas of cognition Thought to include the essential long-term memory traces for motor learning.
Slide 18 - The Limbic System Emotional Center Amygdala controls major affective activities like friendship, love and affection, on the expression of mood and, mainly, on fear, rage and aggression. Hippocampus is particularly involved with memory phenomena, specially with the formation of long-term memory. Thalamus makes connections Hypothalamus - symptomatic manifestations and expression of emotions Brain Stem – emotional reflex reactions
Slide 19 - Two Kinds of Brain Cells Glia - (Greek word meaning glue) 90% of the brain cells  Less known about glia cells  No cell body Remove dead brain cells and give structural support Neurons (Greek word meaning bowstring) 100 billion neurons in human brain Neurons essential to performing the brain's work Consist of a compact cell body, dendrites, and axons
Slide 20 - Neurons Neurons (brain cells) make connections between different parts of the brain. Information is carried inside a neuron by electrical pulses and transmitted across the synaptic gap from one neuron to another by chemicals called neurotransmitters. Learning is a critical function of neurons.
Slide 21 - Dendrites and Axons Dendritic branching helps make connections between cells. As cells connect with other cells, synapses occurs.   New synapses appear after learning. Repeating earlier learning makes neural pathways more efficient through myelination (fatty substances formed around axons) Brain Songs - http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/songs.html
Slide 22 - Synaptic Connectivity Relative glucose metabolic rate related to complexity of the dendritic structure of cortical neurons. Increase in capillary density in the human frontal cortex during the same period. Decrease in glucose metabolic rate in the adult reflects a "pruning" of excessive neuronal connectivity and a selective stabilization of the remaining neuronal connections.
Slide 23 - Secret Life of the Brain PBS Web - http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/index.html
Slide 24 - Speech Broca’s Area: In the left frontal lobe Controls production of speech sounds Lies close to motor areas Wernicke’s Area: Left temporal lobe Gets meaning from words and sentences Formulates ideas into speech
Slide 25 - The Complex Brain
Slide 26 - Auditory, Kinesthetic, Visual
Slide 27 - The Five Senses Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling the World "Everything we know about the world comes to us through our senses. Traditionally, we were thought to have just five of them—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.  Scientists now recognize that we have several additional kinds of sensations, such as pain, pressure, temperature, joint position, muscle sense, and movement, but these are generally included under "touch." (The brain areas involved are called the "somatosensory" areas.)" Howard Hughes Medical Center  http://www.hhmi.org/senses/
Slide 28 - Audition (Hearing) Sound waves enter your ear canal and hit your ear drum. This makes the ear drum vibrate. Three tiny bones in your middle ear link the vibrating ear drum with the inner part of your ear. The last of these bones is connected to a tiny bone structure that looks a bit like a snail shell, but is about the size of a pea. It is called the cochlea (pronounced cock-lee-ah). Your cochlea is filled with a liquid that carries the vibrations to thousands of tiny hair cells. Each cell is tuned to a particular sound (or frequency). As these little hair cells move in the fluid, they carry a message to the nerve that is connected to your brain, which turns this signal into what you hear.   Resource: http://www1.mydr.com.au/default.asp?article=3361 http://kidshealth.org/misc_pages/bodyworks/ear.html http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/body/ear_SW.html Virtual Tour Of the Ear!
Slide 29 - Language and Images of the Mind
Slide 30 - Language Processing Unpracticed Task Yellow and red regions are "hotter – higher cell activity Patient was unpracticed at the language learning task. The highest brain activities in the temporal lobe responsible for the hearing perception Prefrontal cortex responsible for understanding language. Practiced Task Same individual has now learned the language task and is spelling out. Concentrated in the Broca area of the cortex which is responsible for the motor control of voice Real-time image of brain function. Pet Scans
Slide 31 - Music and the Brain Familiar music activates Broca's area (left hemisphere) Rhythm notes are activated in Broca's area and the cerebellum Harmony activates the left side of the brain more than the right in the inferior temporal cortex. Timbre activated the right hemisphere (the only musical element that did) Pitch activated an area on the left back of the brain - the precuneus. Melody activated both sides of the brain. Composite listening - Left and Right Hemisphere - Auditory Cortex Understanding lyrics - Wernicke's Area Music is processed differently for different people depending on kind of music and musical background.
Slide 32 - Mind’s Eye to Emotion’s Seat "Music goes much deeper than that—below the outer layers of the auditory and visual cortex to the limbic system, which controls our emotions. The emotions generated there produce a number of well-known physiological responses. Sadness, for instance, automatically causes pulse to slow, blood pressure to rise, a drop in the skin's conductivity and a rise in temperature. Fear increases heart rate; happiness makes you breathe faster.” From Music and the Brain: Processing and Responding: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web1/Sancar.html
Slide 33 - Emotional Impact of Music Music modulates our body's stress responses. Music can decrease or increase stress levels. Music is a strong and powerful mood enhancer. Music strengthens our immune systems and enhances wellness.  Sounds connect us to our sympathetic and parasympathetic (stress/distress response) nervous systems.   Music impacts blood flow in the body.
Slide 34 - Brainwaves
Slide 35 - Emotional Impact of Music Evidence exists that music can be helpful in healing. Possible Explanation - Music can help the body get back in synch since the body emits and responds to sounds and vibrations.   Natural state of rest - 8 cycles per second (8 cps) - corresponding with alpha brainwave state Every function in the body has a modifiable, basic rhythmic pattern and vibratory rate that impacts our nerves through sound. Body is maintained through rhythmic vibration. Changes in harmonic patterns, tonal sequences, rhythmic patterns might affect physical and mental health.
Slide 36 - The Controversial Mozart Effect The Mind Institute http://www.mindinst.org/MIND3/indexresearchers.html 1993 - College students who listened to the Mozart Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major (K.448) Short-term subsequent enhancement of their spatial-temporal (ST) reasoning (making a mental image and thinking ahead in space and time, as in chess, music or math). 1997 - 3 year-olds given piano keyboard training for six months showed long-term ST reasoning enhancement. The Mozart Effect Resource http://www.mozarteffect.com/learn/read.html Results of Research Evidence has been reported in 26 of 27 studies that were done to duplicate the effect. Effect is cross-species (occurs in rats brains as well),  Music impacts neural firing patterns in epileptics as demonstrated in PET scans (improved spatial reasoning) Effect present in preschoolers and not dependant on musical talent EEG Studies demonstrated enhanced synchronization of neuronal firing activity of the right frontal and left temporal-parietal areas compared to students listening to a story.
Slide 37 - Japanese Music Demonstration Mo Kin – Japanese 3 year old musician http://robpongi.com/pages/comboMOKINHI.html
Slide 38 - Websites Secret Life of the Brain (PBS) - http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/index.html   Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling - http://www.hhmi.org/senses/  Neuroscience for Kids - http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html The Musical Brain - http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/music.html Kidshealth - http://kidshealth.org/kid/ International Foundation for Music Research - http://www.music-research.org/ Brain and Emotions Research - http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/emotion/ Songs for Teaching - Using Music to Promote Learning - http://www.songsforteaching.com/index.html  NIEHS Kids' Pages - http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/music.htm
Slide 39 - Music and Literacy Articles - http://www.menc.org/networks/genmus/litarticles.html Musicality from Birth to Five - http://music-research.org/Publications/V01N1_musicality.html  Research on Music Teaching and Learning During Elementary School Years - http://music-research.org/Publications/V01N1_research.html  Music and the Brain - http://www.brainplace.com/bp/music/default.asp  Songs for Teaching Research Page - http://www.songsforteaching.com/references.htm Music Research Websites