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Slide 1 - Social Media in Natural and Man-Made Disasters Adam Worrall Tom Masters Azhar Ali Khan ISM 5046 Spring 2011 {
Slide 2 - Social Media use by the Government in Emergency Management Institutional Emergency Management and Social Media Social Media and “man-made” revolutions Agenda
Slide 3 - “Not part of most organizations’ emergency plans” (Prentice & Huffman, 2008, p. 1) Red Cross survey of adults 18% turn to social media after calling 911 74% expect requests for help via social media to be answered within an hour Failures in communication, info sharing (Yasin, 2010) Agencies and organizations must leverage social media for EM Social media and emergency management (EM)
Slide 4 - US government response Wikis, Web 2.0-style collaboration tools Information portal to support relief Comprehensive, common, neutral platform Unwieldy over time Open Interconnected and collaborative “Never before experienced” (Bedford & Faust, 2010) Haitian earthquake
Slide 5 - San Diego wildfires Blogs, Google Maps mashups City of San Francisco, CA Alerts via Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SMS Cooperation with other cities City of Manor, TX Location-specific alerts Two-way information sharing Twitter Earthquake Detector (USGS) State of Virginia and Austin, TX Situational awareness for EM via social media Other examples (Jackson, 2008; Prentice & Huffman, 2008; Yasin, 2010)
Slide 6 - Key word: emergent The New Haiti Project (Le Project Nouvelle Haiti, 2011) Grass-roots social network and information portal San Diego wildfires Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, Google Maps mashups Earthquakes and floods in China Forums, Twitter-like tools Use by the general public (Bedford & Faust, 2010; Jackson, 2008)
Slide 7 - Facilitate sharing and translation of knowledge Broad access Contextual cues for understanding Conversational, discussion-based style Greater credibility Limit restrictions, maintain strengths of “old media” Near real-time, two-way medium “Social networking sites … might be the answer [to getting the] big picture” (Jackson, 2008) Benefits (Bedford & Faust, 2010; Prentice and Huffman, 2008)
Slide 8 - Guidelines to guide use during emergencies One central individual who monitors social media Incident blog for information distribution Share information and knowledge via multiple media Leverage existing Web 2.0 services and social media tools Employ RSS and syndication for alerts to new content Strategies (Prentice & Huffman, 2008)
Slide 9 - Need to retain information, knowledge afterwards Knowledge management Move beyond microblogging Do not add complexity Trust, verification, reciprocity Group or agency may need to step up Challenges (Bedford & Faust, 2010)
Slide 10 - Social Media and Emergency Management in Controlled Settings Public Schools and Higher Education Institutions are Experiencing Higher Crime Rates/Increased Threats Unique Challenges and Advantages to Implementing Social Media for Emergency Response Social Media and Institutional Emergency Management (EM)
Slide 11 - Access to social media outlets and ICTs high amongst institutional population. Facebook, Twitter, Skype, Apps, Software Social Media Applications in Campus Recovery (Next Slide) Infrastructure in Institutions
Slide 12 - Social Media Applications in Recovery
Slide 13 - Notification Systems Best Practice and Improving Framework Standards for Effective Systems Timeliness and Maintenance The Clery Act and ICS
Slide 14 - Examples and Issues Successes and Failures Virginia Tech Shooting Lack of Notification Florida State University FSU ALERT Issues Measuring Success Cost Downtime Stakeholder Verification Etc.
Slide 15 - Infrastructure is there Varies by Institution Social Media as Part of Whole Use in Institutions
Slide 16 - Does social media cause revolutions? Focus on social media as the cause The Middle East is experiencing a number of revolutions They are being named as Twitter Revolutions Diverse opinion as to role of social media in the “man-made disasters” and revolutions Social Revolutions
Slide 17 - Strong Ties versus Weak Ties Communication Medium in revolutions Pamphlets Faxes Social Media Expert Opinion Zakaria Gopnik Gladwell Social Interaction
Slide 18 - Facebook’s role in Egypt and Tunisia Vertical Threshold Horizontal Expansion Compounding Effect Twitter’s role in Iran Blogging in China Vital for Communication? US Government’s Role Apps Twitter Social Media Strengths
Slide 19 - Social Media “Impotence” Tragedy in Libya Disaster in Japan Comparison with Iran and Poland Is real journalism still relevant? The role of Aljazeera Where was Social Media?
Slide 20 - Social Media is at best a tool and not a cause Increased multi-nodal communication Effective Use by grassroots organizations They must be part of an integrated strategy It is an effective catalyst that does not sustain change Social Media – Final Word
Slide 21 - Bedford, D., & Faust, L. (2010). Role of online communities in recent responses to disasters: Tsunami, China, Katrina, and Haiti. In Marshall, C., & Toms, E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (vol. 47). Panel presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Pittsburgh, PA, October 23-27, 2010. Retrieved from https://www.asis.org/asist2010/proceedings/proceedings/ASIST_AM10/submissions/ 207_Final_Submission.pdf Intellipedia. (2011). In Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellipedia Jackson, B. (2008, June 21). Web 2.0 meets emergency needs. PCWorld. Retrieved from http://www.pcworld.com/article/147385/web_20_meets_emergency_needs.html New Haiti Project, The. (2011). Le Project Nouvelle Haiti: Haiti utilise le Web 2.0 pour se reconstruire. Retrieved from http://newhaitiproject.ning.com/ Prentice, S., & Huffman, E. (2008). Social media’s new role in emergency management: Emergency management and robotics for hazardous environments (Report No. INL/CON-07-13552). Idaho Falls, ID: Idaho National Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/ Documents/3931947.pdf Vogel, S. (2009). For intelligence officers, a wiki way to connect dots. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/26/AR2009082603606.html Yasin, R. (2010, September 2). 5 ways to use social media for better emergency response. GCN: Government Computer News: The online authority for government IT professionals. Retrieved from http://gcn.com/articles/2010/09/06/social-media-emergency-management.aspx References Social Media use by the Government in Emergency Management
Slide 22 - http://tinyurl.com/4dgdymn. This article highlights findings from a student survey conducted a Ball State University by Michael Hanley, by an Associate Professor of Journalism who leads Ball State's mobile communications research program. Jones, Steve. Pew Internet and American Life, The Internet Goes to College: How students are living in the Future with Today’s Technology. September, 2002. (http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED472669.pdf) EDUCASE - http://social-media-optimization.com/2008/09/college-students-use-of-social-networks/ CNN - http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-29/justice/virginia.tech.fine_1_shooting-rampage-clery-act-west-ambler-johnston?_s=PM:CRIME FSU ALERT - http://www.safety.fsu.edu/emergencymanagement/fsualert.html http://www.cnn.com/2011/CRIME/03/29/virginia.tech.fine/index.html?hpt=T2 http://www.cnn.com/2011/CRIME/03/29/texas.bullying.suit/index.html?hpt=T2 http://ec.creol.ucf.edu/Report%20of%20demo_07-27-07.pdf http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55Ai5tAUAa0 References Institutional Emergency Management and Social Media
Slide 23 - http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20110321/ARTICLE/110329911/-1/sports?p=1&tc=pg http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/10/04/101004fa_fact_gladwell http://www.levantinecenter.org/levantine-review/exactly-what-role-did-social-media-play-egypts-revolution http://gizmodo.com/#!5786320/chinese-blogger-arrested-amid-online-revolutionary-suppression http://johnkingusa.blogs.cnn.com/2011/02/15/the-role-of-social-media-in-revolutions/ http://lithosphere.lithium.com/t5/Building-Community-the-Platform/From-Weak-Ties-to-Strong-Ties-Community-vs-Social-Networks-3/ba-p/6834 http://rss.cnn.com/services/podcasting/fareedzakaria/rss.xml http://www.levantinecenter.org/levantine-raeview/exactly-what-role-did-social-media-play-egypts-revolution http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/25/us-rights-usa-technology-idUSTRE72O6DH20110325 http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/03/social-medias-impotence-during-the-turmoil-in-libya-and-japan/72835/ http://techcrunch.com/2011/02/13/al-jazeeras-social-revolution-in-realtime/ Mileti, Dennis S. 2008. Public warnings that foster protective actions. Paper read at 2008 EMI All-Hazards Higher Education Conference, June 2-5, 2008, at Emmitsburg, MD. http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/Hartle%20-%20Applications%20of%20Theory-Public%20Warnings%20Experienced%20While%20Returning.doc References Social Media and “man-made” revolutions