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Slide 1 - Chapter 16: Social and Personality Development in Middle Adulthood
Slide 2 - In This Chapter
Slide 3 - Theories of Social and Personality Development Generativity versus Stagnation Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Generativity involves interest in establishing and guiding next generation Stagnation involves pervading sense of stagnation and personal impoverishment
Slide 4 - Theories of Social and Personality Development Research on Generativity Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Generativity associated with several positive outcomes: successful marriages work achievements close friendships altruistic behaviors overall mental health
Slide 5 - Theories of Social and Personality Development Research on Childlessness Impact of childlessness for men Earlier response to childlessness predictive of male psychological health at age 47
Slide 6 - Stop and Think Is rearing one’s own or another’s child important for men’s psychological growth? Would you draw the same or similar conclusion for women? Why? Why not?
Slide 7 - Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentErikson’s Theory Revised Vaillant’s Theory “Career consolidation” stage (between intimacy and generativity) “Keeper of the meaning” (following generativity and stagnation)
Slide 8 - Mid-Life Crisis: Fact or Fiction? Levinson and Erikson Each person must confront a constellation of difficult tasks at mid-life Newer research offers different conclusions Serious problems experienced by the minority and may be triggered by life events
Slide 9 - Theories in Social and Personality DevelopmentRole Transitions Each of us occupies multiple roles at the same time, which produces frictions of various kinds
Slide 10 - Changes in RelationshipsPartnerships Mid-life Profile Marital stability and satisfaction increase in mid-life Less likely to divorce; more able to cope with divorce stress Mellowing of personality = more resilience
Slide 11 - Changes in Relationships Children and Parents In middle adulthood family role involves giving assistance in both directions of generational chain Middle Adulthood
Slide 12 - Figure 16.1 The “Middle Age Squeeze”
Slide 13 - Changes in Relationships Empty Nest and Revolving Door Women more often describe empty nest event as positive Revolving door event may be stressful for middle-aged parents
Slide 14 - Changing Relationships Are you or someone you know experiencing “Peter Pandemonium”?
Slide 15 - Changing RelationshipsGrandparenting Overview New roles for middle-aged adults Grandparenting may be shifting to slightly later age Most grandparents express high levels of satisfaction with their role Grandparents can positively influence children’s development
Slide 16 - Changing RelationshipsCategories of Grandparents
Slide 17 - Changing RelationshipsGrandparenting: Remote Relationships Characteristics 29% of grandparents Infrequent contact and little direct influence Most commonly created by physical distance
Slide 18 - Changing RelationshipsGrandparenting: Involved Relationships Characteristics 16% report involved relationships Daily participation in rearing their grandchildren Often living in multi-generational housing
Slide 19 - Changing RelationshipsGrandparenting Full-time custodial grandparenting more likely when grandchild’s mother is unmarried Daughter can continue school or work Role of grandmother broader and more intimate than that of grandfather For most adults in middle age, grandparenthood not central to their lives, their sense of self, or to their overall morale
Slide 20 - Questions to Ponder Which kind of relationship do you have with your grandparents? What kinds of influence do they try to exert upon your life? From your viewpoint, do people go through a mid-life crisis? Are they major events or minor adjustments? Please give examples. Questions To Ponder ? ?
Slide 21 - Changes in RelationshipsCaring For Aging Parents Strong sense of filial responsibility Caregiver burden may occur Responsibility negotiated along several dimensions
Slide 22 - Caring For Aging ParentsHow is caregiving responsibility determined? Influenced by competing demands of all children/family members Most likely caregivers have specific life circumstances Female gender bias Intervention can help ease caregiver burden
Slide 23 - Changing RelationshipsHow do friendships change? Total number of friends less Friendships more intimate and close Friendships endure, even with less frequent contact Scant research on middle adulthood friendships
Slide 24 - Continuity and Change in PersonalityA Brief Review The “Big Five”: OCEAN
Slide 25 - Continuity and Change in PersonalityThree Ideas About the Big Five Big Five are relatively stable from childhood through old age Openness, extraversion, neuroticism decline as adults age Agreeableness and conscientiousness tend to increase through age 70
Slide 26 - Mid-Life Career IssuesWork Satisfaction At its peak despite few work promotions in middle age Work performance quality high Experience less burnout than younger adults More career stability
Slide 27 - True or False? Men and women have the same source of job satisfaction but deal with it differently.
Slide 28 - Mid-life Career IssuesJob Performance Job Performance Remains high throughout middle adulthood May engage in selective optimization with compensation to remain highly productive Link between selection, optimization, and compensation and the quality of work performance strengthens with increasing age
Slide 29 - Mid-Life Career IssuesUnemployment and Career Transitions Unemployement Can be more difficult in middle age Often involves ageism
Slide 30 - Mid-Life Career IssuesUnemployment and Career Transitions Involuntary career changers Experience heightened anxiety, depression and health risks after job loss Changes in family relationships Loss of self-esteem Good coping skills are critical Reemployment restores sense of well-being Voluntary career changers May not wish to pursue advancement in current occupations Express a new side of their personality But the transition can still be stressful “Honeymoon hangover effect” may emerge
Slide 31 - Mid-Life Career IssuesVoluntary Career Changers Genetic Basis for Career Change Twin studies suggest genetic basis Voluntary changes product of personality What personality characteristics influence do you think influence such a voluntary change?
Slide 32 - Mid-Life Career IssuesPreparing for Retirement Baby Boomers Projected to be healthiest, best educated, and longest-living retirees in history Make retirement plans for both wives and husbands May not have saved enough and have accumulated too much debt for their desired lifestyle
Slide 33 - Mid-Life Career IssuesPlanning for Retirement Dychtwald’s Survey of Baby Boomers