X

Download Social & Personality Development PowerPoint Presentation

SlidesFinder-Advertising-Design.jpg

Login   OR  Register
X


Iframe embed code :



Presentation url :

X

Description :

View and free download Social & Personality Development powerpoint presentation which is uploaded by honey an active user in belonging ppt presentation Education & Training category.

Tags :

Social & Personality Development

Home / Education & Training / Education & Training Presentations / Social & Personality Development PowerPoint Presentation

Social & Personality Development PowerPoint Presentation

Ppt Presentation Embed Code   Zoom Ppt Presentation

PowerPoint is the world's most popular presentation software which can let you create professional Social & Personality Development powerpoint presentation easily and in no time. This helps you give your presentation on Social & Personality Development in a conference, a school lecture, a business proposal, in a webinar and business and professional representations.

The uploader spent his/her valuable time to create this Social & Personality Development powerpoint presentation slides, to share his/her useful content with the world. This ppt presentation uploaded by slidesfinder in Education & Training ppt presentation category is available for free download,and can be used according to your industries like finance, marketing, education, health and many more.

About This Presentation

Slide 1 - Social & Personality Development in the Preschool Years Chapter 8 Development Across the Lifespan
Slide 2 - Self Concept in the School Years: Thinking About the Self During the preschool period, children wonder about the nature of self The way they answer the question “Who am I?” at this stage may affect their whole life!
Slide 3 - (Self concept in the preschool years, continued) Preschoolers begin to form their SELF-CONCEPT (their identity, or their set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual). Youngsters typically overestimate their skills and knowledge (their self concepts are NOT necessarily accurate). They also begin to develop a view of self that reflects the way their particular culture considers the self.
Slide 4 - ppt slide no 4 content not found
Slide 5 - Different cultural philosophies may lead to differences in how children view the self during the preschool years Asian societies tend to have a COLLECTIVE ORIENTATION, promoting the notion of interdependence, blending in, and being interconnected. Western cultures tend to Preschoolers’ self concepts are NOT only the result of parental influence, but also of social and cultural influence! embrace an INDIVIDUALISTIC ORIENTATION that emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness, and competition.
Slide 6 - In short… Preschoolers develop their self-concepts as a result of how their parents treat them AND based on the society and culture they live in! (NATURE & NURTURE!!)
Slide 7 - Psychosocial Development PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society, and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior. According to Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, preschoolers have already passed through a couple of Developmental stages. As discussed in Chapter 6…
Slide 8 - More about Erikson’s theory… Remember that Erikson proposed an 8 stage theory of psychosocial development, from infancy to old age To pass through the stages, a conflict/crisis must be resolved at each stage  From age 3 to 6, children experience the INITIATIVE-VERSUS-GUILT STAGE, the period during which children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
Slide 9 - The initiative-versus-guilt stage, continued Conflict occurs between the desire to become more independent and autonomous and the guilt that may occur Preschoolers with supportive parents =independent & autonomous Preschoolers with restrictive, overprotective parents = shame & self-doubt The foundational concept of this stage is that children become aware that they are people too! They begin to make decisions and shape the kind of person they are to become!
Slide 10 - ppt slide no 10 content not found
Slide 11 - Developing Racial & Ethnic Awareness By the time they are 3 or 4 years of age, preschoolers distinguish between members of different races and begin to understand the significance of race in society. Some youngsters begin to show preferential feelings for members of their own race.
Slide 12 - (Developing Racial & Ethnic Awareness, continued) Many minority children experience ambivalence over the meaning of their racial identity. In some studies, as many as 90% of African American children reacted more negatively to drawings of black children than white children. WHY? Not because of lower self esteem The reason: the influence of the dominant, predominantly white culture
Slide 13 - More about the influence of the dominant, predominantly White culture Peggy McIntosh White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack (1988) ~ Describing White privilege makes one newly accountable ~ Talks about how she came to realize that African-Americans can not count on conditions that Caucasian Americans take for granted as members of the dominant group “I can turn on the TV or open to the front page of the paper and see people of my race widely and positively represented”
Slide 14 - (Developing Racial & Ethnic Awareness, continued) Some preschool age children may experience RACE DISSONANCE, the phenomenon in which minority youngsters indicate preference for white values or people.
Slide 15 - Gender Identity: Developing Femaleness & Maleness Gender, the sense of being male or female, is well established in young children. (Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy.) One way gender is manifested is in play. During the preschool years boys increasingly play with boys. Girls tend to play with girls. Gender out-weighs ethnic variables when it comes to play An Asian American boy would prefer to play with an African American boy than with an Asian American girl
Slide 16 - (Gender Identity: Developing Femaleness & Maleness, continued) Preschoolers also begin to develop expectations about appropriate behavior for girls and boys. Like adults, preschoolers expect males to be more independent, forceful and competitive and females to be warm, nurturing, expressive and submissive. These are expectations and not truths about actual behavior! But viewing the world this way affects preschoolers behavior! However, young children typically hold stronger gender-stereotypes than adults.
Slide 17 - Several theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes exist. Biological perspectives argue that physical characteristics associated with the different sexes, hormone differences, and differences in the structure of female and male brains might lead to gender differences. (inborn genetic factors  gender differences)
Slide 18 - (Theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes, continued) Psychoanalytic perspectives attribute gender differences to IDENTIFICATION, the process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values. (gender development results from moving thru stages related to biological urges)
Slide 19 - (Theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes, continued) Social-learning approaches argue that children learn gender-related behavior and expectations from direct training and from their observation of others, including the media. (Gender related behavior & expectations learned from observations of others in their environment)
Slide 20 - (Theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes, continued) Cognitive approaches argue that individuals develop a GENDER IDENTITY, the perception of oneself as male or female. To do this they develop a GENDER SCHEMA (a cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender). Preschoolers begin developing "rules"about what is right, and what is inappropriate, for males and females.
Slide 21 - (The cognitive approach as an explanation for gender related attitudes, continued) By the time they are 4 or 5 years of age, children develop an understanding of GENDER CONSTANCY (the belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors). Sandra Bem believes that one can minimize rigid views of gender by encouraging children to be ANDROGYNOUS (a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes) Males as assertive & gentle, Females as empathetic & competitive
Slide 22 - Preschoolers' Social Lives The preschool years are marked by increased interactions with the world at large. Around age 3, children begin to develop real friendships. Peers come to be seen as individuals with special qualities. Relationships are based on companionship, play, and entertainment. Friendship is focused on the carrying out of shared activities (rather than just being in the same place at the same time!).
Slide 23 - With age, preschooler's view of friendship evolves. Older preschoolers see friendship as a continuing state, and as a stable relationship that has meaning beyond the immediate moment. Older preschoolers pay more attention to concepts such as trust, support, and shared interests. Even by age 3, children are interested in maintaining smooth social relationships with their friends, trying to avoid disagreements.
Slide 24 - (Preschool Social Life,continued) Qualities associated with popularity physical attractiveness being outgoing being sociable speaking more smiling more having a greater understanding of others‘ emotions Qualities associated with disliked children more likely to be aggressive More disruptive, impose themselves on their peers less cooperative do not take turns. Some children are more readily liked by their peers than others.
Slide 25 - (Preschool Social Life,continued) Are unpopular preschoolers destined for a life with few friends? Not necessarily! Social skills that are associated with popularity can be taught by parents and teachers as well as enhanced through a warm, supportive home environment.
Slide 26 - Playing by the Rules: How Play Affects Social & Personality Development Categorizing play Three year olds typically engage in FUNCTIONAL PLAY which involves simple, repetitive activities, that is, doing something for the sake of being active. (playing with dolls, skipping, jumping rope, etc)
Slide 27 - (Categorizing play, continued) By age 4, children typically engage in CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY which involves manipulating objects to produce or build something (legos, puzzles, etc.) Constructive play allows children to test developing cognitive skills. Constructive play allows children to practice motor skills. Constructive play allows children to problem solve. Constructive play allows children to learn to cooperate
Slide 28 - The social aspects of play (How Play Affects Social & Personality Development, continued) PARALLEL PLAY is when children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other. ONLOOKER PLAY occurs when children simply watch others play but do not actually participate themselves Mildred Parten (1932) noted various types of play…
Slide 29 - (Mildred Parten’s various types of play, continued) ASSOCIATIVE PLAY is where two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing. In COOPERATIVE PLAY, children genuinely play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests.
Slide 30 - More about the effects of play on social and personality development… Associative and cooperative play generally do not emerge until the end of the preschool years. The nature of a child's play is influenced by their social experiences. Children with preschool experience engage in more social behaviors earlier (associative & cooperative play, etc.)
Slide 31 - (the effects of play on social and personality development, continued) Play becomes increasing unrealistic during the preschool period (“pretend play” increases) using a matchbox as a car instead of a metal toy car Vygotsky argues that pretend play (especially social) aids cognitive development and understanding of the world/other cultures Cultural background also results in different styles of play…
Slide 32 - Korean American: more parallel play than Anglo American Anglo Americans: more pretend play Comparing Play Complexity… Clear differences exist in patterns of play
Slide 33 - The continuing development of theory of Mind and its affect on children's play Recall from chapter 6 that Theory of mind refers to knowledge and beliefs about the mental world. Using theory of mind, children are able to come up with explanations for how others think and the reasons for their behaving the way they do.
Slide 34 - (Theory of Mind and its affect on children's play, continued) During preschool years, children increasingly can see the world through others‘ perspectives. Preschool children can understand that people have motives and reasons for their behavior. These changes in preschoolers theory of mind affect how they play (and contributes to social & personality development)
Slide 35 - (Theory of Mind and its affect on children's play, continued)  There are also cultural differences in theory of mind. Western children are likely to regard others‘ behavior as due to the kind of people they are, seeing it as a function of their personalities. Non-Western children may see others‘ behavior as produced by forces that are less under their personal control, such as unhappy gods or bad fortune  These cultural differences also contribute to differences in social & personality development!
Slide 36 - Discipline: Teaching Preschoolers Desired Behaviors Diana Baumrind (1980) notes 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline: AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS PERMISSIVE PARENTS AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS
Slide 37 - (Diana Baumrind’s 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline, continued) 1) AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement..
Slide 38 - (Diana Baumrind’s 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline, continued) 2) PERMISSIVE PARENTS provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children. 2 types of permissive parents:  Permissive-indifferent parents are usually uninvolved in their children's lives. Their children tend to be dependent and moody. Their children also tend to have low social skills and low self-control
Slide 39 - (2 types of permissive parents, continued)  Permissive-indulgent parents are more involved with their children, but they place little or no limits or control on their behavior. Their children typically show low control and low social skills. However, these children tend to feel that they are especially privileged.
Slide 40 - (Diana Baumrind’s 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline, continued) 3) AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but try to reason with their children giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way.
Slide 41 - (Diana Baumrind’s 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline, continued) Children of authoritative parents tend to fare best: they are independent, friendly with their peers, self-assertive, and cooperative parents are not always consistent in their parenting or discipline styles.
Slide 42 - (Diana Baumrind’s 3 major types of parenting or patterns of discipline, continued) Children whose parents engage in aspects of the authoritative style related to supportive parenting Supportive parenting encompasses parental warmth, proactive teaching, calm discussion during disciplinary episodes, and interest and involvement in children's peer activities show better adjustment and are protected from the consequences of later adversity.
Slide 43 - (parenting & patterns of discipline, continued) Childrearing practices that parents are urged to follow reflect cultural perspectives about the nature of children and the role of the parents. Childrearing practices in Eastern societies are more likely to involve strict control. Such control is seen as a measure of parents‘ involvement in and concern for the welfare of their children. In Western societies, and especially in the United States, parents are more often advised to use authoritative methods.
Slide 44 -  No one parenting style is is likely to be successful or universally accepted! Cultural context must be taken into consideration
Slide 45 - Child Abuse and Psychological Maltreatment Obviously child abuse, neglect and maltreatment seriously affect the social & personality development of many preschoolers Five children are killed by their caretakers every day. 140,000 others are physically injured every year. Three million children are abused or neglected annually in the U. S.
Slide 46 - Types of Child Abuse
Slide 47 - (Child Abuse and Psychological Maltreatment, continued)  Child abuse can occur in any home, though it is most frequent in families living in stressful environment. Poverty Single-parent homes Families with high levels of marital discord
Slide 48 - Most parents don't intend to abuse their children Children who are fussy, resistant to control, slow to adapt to new situations, overly anxious, frequent bed wetters, and who have developmental delays are more prone to being victims of abuse. Labeling children as being at higher risk for abuse does not make them responsible for their abuse (blaming the victim)
Slide 49 - There are many reasons for why child abuse occurs… There is a vague demarcation between permissible and impermissible forms of physical punishment or violence. Factors related to the privacy of child care in Western societies present unrealistic expectations about children's abilities. The CYCLE-OF-VIOLENCE HYPOTHESIS argues that the abuse and neglect children suffer predisposes them as adults to be abusive.
Slide 50 - (child abuse, continued) Not all abuse is physical: PSYCHOLOGICALMALTREATMENT is abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning. Overt behaviors (frightening, humiliating children, threats of abandonment) Covert behaviors (“neglect”; ignoring child, emotionally unresponsive, inattentive to needs)
Slide 51 - (child abuse, continued) Obstacles stand in the way of identifying cases in the U.S Privacy issues levels of harm requirements The consequences of psychological maltreatment Some preschoolers suffer lasting damage Low self esteem * lying misbehavior * aggression Underachievement *criminal behavior suicide
Slide 52 - Some children are resilient and grow into psychologically healthy adults despite abuse and maltreatment (sometimes with the help of psychologists) RESILIENCE refers to the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage. Resilient children are affectionate, easygoing, good communicators, intelligent. They are able to elicit positive responses from others. They tend to feel that they can shape their own fate and are not dependent on others or luck.
Slide 53 - Moral Development During the Preschool Years Changes in moral development are an important aspect of growth during the preschool years MORAL DEVELOPMENT refers to changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues. Several theoretical approaches have evolved for explaining moral development in children.
Slide 54 - Piaget’s view of moral development HETERONOMOUS MORALITY is the initial stage of moral development (from 4 to 7 years old) in which rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable. Youngsters in this stage do not take intention into account. Children in the heteronomous stage also believe in IMMANENT JUSTICE, the notion that broken rules earn immediate punishment
Slide 55 - (Piaget’s view of moral development, continued) The next stage, according to Piaget, is the incipient cooperation stage (from age 7 to 10). Here children become more social and learn the rules. They play according to a shared conception of the rules
Slide 56 - (Piaget’s view of moral development, continued) During the autonomous cooperation stage (beginning at age 10) children become fully aware that game rules can be modified if the people who play them agree. ~~ Critics of Piaget's theory argue that he underestimated the age at which children's moral skills develop.
Slide 57 - More theoretical approaches for explaining moral development in children… Social-learning approaches to morality focus on how the environment influences children's moral behavior. Prosocial behavior (helping behavior that benefits others In this view, moral conduct is learned through reinforcement and modeling. Preschoolers are more apt to model the behavior of warm, responsive adults and models viewed as highly competent or high in prestige.
Slide 58 - (Social-learning approaches to morality, continued) Children do more than simply mimic modeled behavior. By observing others‘ behavior, they begin to learn society's norms. This leads to ABSTRACT MODELING, the process of developing more general rules and principles that underlie behavior.
Slide 59 - Another approach to morality… According to some developmentalists, EMPATHY - the understanding of what another individual feels - lies at the heart of some kinds of moral behavior. Empathy starts early (1 yr old infants cry if others do) During the preschool years, empathy continues to grow
Slide 60 - (Another approach to morality…empathy & emotions continued) Positive emotions such as empathy, sympathy, and admiration lead children to behave in a moral fashion and thus contributes to social and personality development Also, the desire to avoid negative feelings leads them to act in moral helpful ways (Freud)
Slide 61 - Aggression and Violence in Preschool Children AGGRESSION is the intentional injury or harm to another person. Infants do not act aggressively, however, by the preschool years children demonstrate true aggression.
Slide 62 - (Aggression and Violence in Preschool Children, continued) The frequency and duration of aggressive acts declines throughout early childhood. Aggression is a relatively stable trait, the most aggressive preschoolers tend to be the most aggressive school aged children.
Slide 63 - There are varying explanations for aggressive behavior among children Freud claimed we all have a death drive, which leads us to act aggressively. Konrad Lorenz argues that humans, like all animals, share a fighting instinct. Sociobiologists, scientists who consider the biological roots of social behavior, argue that aggression facilitates the goal of strengthening the species and the gene pool in general.
Slide 64 - (explanations for aggressive behavior among children, continued) Cognitive approaches argue that aggression stems, in part, from the manner in which children interpret other's actions and situations. Social-learning approaches contend that aggression is based on prior learning, and how social and environmental conditions and models teach individuals to be aggressive.
Slide 65 - Even though most children are not exposed directly to real-life violence, television models aggression for them! TV has a clear impact on cognitive development We know that preschoolers imitate violence they see on cartoons ~Does imitation lead to actual aggression? Tough to answer definitively! Conducting a true experiment would be unethical Correlational studies clearly suggest subsequent aggression ~Just as kids can learn aggression, they can unlearn! Observation of nonaggressive models leads to reduced aggression levels.
Slide 66 - Television Acts of Violence According to research, violence occurred on TV in Washington, D.C. during a weekday during every time period!
Slide 67 - Most children are at least occasionally aggressive  Aggression is a relatively stable characteristic  Aggressive preschoolers become aggressive school age children  There are serious affects on social and personality development in preschool children All of the psychological theories explored have interesting aspects to them, and it is important that we continue to try to understand them!
Slide 68 - Don’t forget to keep up with your reading!