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Slide 1 - Chapter 14: Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood
Slide 2 - In This Chapter
Slide 3 - Theories of Social and Personality Development Erikson Intimacy versus Isolation Stage Intimacy: Capacity to engage in supportive, affectionate relationship without losing one’s own sense of self Isolation: Results from relationships that are inadequate, lack of self-disclosure, and unresolved identity crises
Slide 4 - Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentIntimacy versus Isolation Stage Developmental task of stage is to establish intimate bonds of love and friendship Barriers to intimacy Supports to intimacy
Slide 5 - Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentLevinson Life structures: All roles and relationships a individual occupies — and conflicts and balances that exist between them Regards formation of intimate relationship central developmental task Cycle through periods of stability and instability
Slide 6 - Figure 14.1 Levinson’s Model of Adult Development Each stable life structure is followed by period of transition in which structure is reexamined.
Slide 7 - Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentEmerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood: Period in which individuals experiment with options prior to taking on adult roles Tasks Relationships Developmental issues
Slide 8 - Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentRoisman Developmental Task Domains in Emerging Adolescence Academic Friendship Conduct Work Romantic Skills 1-3 transfer from adolescence to adulthood Skills 4-5 require more adjustment
Slide 9 - Intimate RelationshipsEvolutionary Theory and Mate Selection Overview Focus on survival value Mating a selective process to insure survival of the species Cross-cultural research findings
Slide 10 - Intimate RelationshipsEvolutionary Theory and Mate Selection Parental Investment Theory (Buss et al.) Male values Male selection criteria Female values Female selection criteria How do men and women differ in this theory?
Slide 11 - Intimate RelationshipsSocial Role Theory and Mate Selection Reanalysis of Parental Investment Theory (Buss et al.) Sex differences are adaptations to gender roles resulting from present-day social realities rather than from natural selection Selections of high-income earning men and women Homogamy or assortive mating
Slide 12 - Intimate RelationshipsMarriage Prevalence More than 2 million formal weddings each year Longitudinal research suggests that most marriages endure; only 1/3 of first marriages end in divorce
Slide 13 - Intimate RelationshipsBridal Stress “Disorder” The textbook author discusses the concept of Bridal Stress “Disorder”. What circumstances or stresses contribute to the behaviors described? Is this another way to say “Bridezilla”?
Slide 14 - Intimate RelationshipsRelationship Quality Influences on marital success Values Personality characteristics of the partners Attitudes towards divorce Security of each partner’s attachment to family of origin Lots of agreement across groups about what makes marriages work!
Slide 15 - Figure 14.3 Ratings of Marital Success by Ethnicity
Slide 16 - Intimate RelationshipsSex Differences in Marital Impact Males Generally benefit more than females on measures of physical and mental health Married men are healthier and live longer than unmarried men Females Married women slightly healthier than unmarried women Unmarried women healthier and happier than unmarried men
Slide 17 - Intimate RelationshipsRelationship Quality: Sternberg Emotional affection contributes to relationship quality Three key components of love Intimacy Passion Commitment
Slide 18 - Figure 14.4 Sternberg’s Theory of Love
Slide 19 - Relationship QualityConflict Management How a couple manages conflict is important!
Slide 20 - Intimate RelationshipsCouples Likely to Divorce Couples likely to divorce: Hostile/engaged Hostile/detached
Slide 21 - Intimate RelationshipsConsequences of Divorce Consequences Increased physical and emotional illness Serious economic hardships, especially for women Disruption of sequence and timing of family roles Strong feelings of failure, loss of self-esteem, loneliness
Slide 22 - Intimate RelationshipsCohabiting Heterosexual Couples Cohabiters Less satisfied when married and more likely to divorce Less homogamous or similar to each other Either fully committed to future marriage or ambiguous
Slide 23 - Intimate RelationshipsCohabiting Heterosexual Couples: Teachman Prior sexual and cohabitational histories are major factors in divorce Cohabiting couples who intend to marry Share work loads at home Happier during cohabitation May do a better job communicating
Slide 24 - Intimate RelationshipsGay and Lesbian Couples: Satisfaction Satisfaction related to Similar backgrounds and equal relationship length commitment Attachment security Dissatisfaction related to Neuroticism in one or both partners
Slide 25 - Intimate RelationshipsGay and Lesbian Couples Differences More dependent on each other for social support Power and tasks are equally divided by couple Lesbians insist on sexual exclusivity whereas gay men regard sexual fidelity as negotiable
Slide 26 - Intimate RelationshipsSinglehood Many single adults: Prefer singlehood Participate in intimate relationships that are not “partnered” Maintain close relationships with families of origin and close friends
Slide 27 - ParenthoodOverview 85% of parents cite relationship of child most fulfilling life aspect Transition to parenthood stressful Transition happens with other social relationships also in transition
Slide 28 - Parenthood The Desire to Become a Parent Large majority of young adults desire to be parents More men than women desire to be parents; view parenting as life-enriching Expectant fathers become emotionally attached to their unborn children
Slide 29 - Parenthood Delaying Parenthood Decisions to delay parenting
Slide 30 - Stop and Think What do you believe are the three greatest adjustments that new parents face? Are these adjustments short-term? Long-term?
Slide 31 - Parenthood Postpartum Depression Incidence Causes Symptoms Treatment
Slide 32 - ParenthoodDevelopmental Impact of Parenthood Marital Satisfaction and Parenthood Division of labor issues fuel dissatisfaction Support from extended family helps Effective conflict-resolution strategies established before birth
Slide 33 - Figure 14.5 Marital Satisfaction through the Family Life Cycle
Slide 34 - ParenthoodChildlessness Marital satisfaction fluctuates less over time Women are more likely to have full-time continuous careers Married men whose wives were not employed were more likely to advance
Slide 35 - ParenthoodSocial Networks Family Most adults feel emotionally close to their parents and see or talk to them regularly. Proximity influences contact. Culture influences involvement with parents. African Americans value family connections highly.
Slide 36 - Are you looking forward to having children? Why or why not? What characteristics of a potential mate are most important to you? What characteristics would be problematic for you? Why? Do you have a good relationship with your parents today? How often do you talk? In what situations do you seek advice? What situations would you not discuss with your parents? Questions To Ponder ? ?
Slide 37 - Other RelationshipsFriends Characteristics Similar in education, social class, interests, family background and family life cycle stage Drawn from same age group; same sex Important members of social network (even exclusive online)
Slide 38 - Other RelationshipsSex Differences in Relationship Styles Women have more close friends Women often the “kinkeeper”, correspondence, family news Young men remain competitive with friends
Slide 39 - The Role of WorkerChoosing an Occupation Family and educational influences of occupational choice Parent social class Family values Educational goals
Slide 40 - The Role of WorkerInfluence of Gender Sex-role definitions still designate some jobs Male jobs more varied, technical, and higher in status and income Female jobs concentrated in the service industry, and offer lower status and pay
Slide 41 - The Role of Worker Personality: Holland’s Theory Types 6 basic personality types People whose personalities match their jobs more likely to be satisfied with their work
Slide 42 - The Role of WorkerCareer Development: Super’s Model Stages of career development
Slide 43 - Career DevelopmentJob Satisfaction Influences Individual personality traits High school and college preparation related to career Uncertainty about job security, employment market and job opportunities
Slide 44 - The Role of WorkerQuality of Work Life (QWL) Movement QWL: Approach to enhancing job satisfaction by basing job and work place design on analyses of quality of employee experiences in organization Assume happier workers are more productive Involves innovations in how work is structured
Slide 45 - The Role of WorkerSex Differences in Work Patterns Women’s work satisfaction goes up with age Most women move into and out of the labor market at least once during adulthood Why does this occur?
Slide 46 - True or False? Our culture thinks of a man as simultaneously a worker, a parent, and a spouse but has difficulty seeing a woman as all three. Do you think this will change? Why or why not? How?