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Slide 1 - Computer Science: An OverviewEleventh Edition by J. Glenn Brookshear Chapter 6:Programming Languages
Slide 2 - 0-2 Chapter 6: Programming Languages 6.1 Historical Perspective 6.2 Traditional Programming Concepts 6.3 Procedural Units 6.4 Language Implementation 6.5 Object Oriented Programming 6.6 Programming Concurrent Activities 6.7 Declarative Programming
Slide 3 - 0-3 Figure 6.1 Generations of programming languages
Slide 4 - 0-4 Second-generation:Assembly language A mnemonic system for representing machine instructions Mnemonic names for op-codes Identifiers: Descriptive names for memory locations, chosen by the programmer
Slide 5 - 0-5 Assembly Language Characteristics One-to-one correspondence between machine instructions and assembly instructions Programmer must think like the machine Inherently machine-dependent Converted to machine language by a program called an assembler
Slide 6 - 0-6 Program Example Machine language156C166D505630CEC000 Assembly languageLD R5, PriceLD R6, ShipChargeADDI R0, R5 R6ST R0, TotalCostHLT
Slide 7 - 0-7 Third Generation Language Uses high-level primitives Similar to our pseudocode in Chapter 5 Machine independent (mostly) Examples: FORTRAN, COBOL Each primitive corresponds to a sequence of machine language instructions Converted to machine language by a program called a compiler
Slide 8 - 0-8 Figure 6.2 The evolution of programming paradigms
Slide 9 - 0-9 Figure 6.3 A function for checkbook balancing constructed from simpler functions
Slide 10 - 0-10 Figure 6.4 The composition of a typical imperative program or program unit
Slide 11 - 0-11 Data Types Integer: Whole numbers Real (float): Numbers with fractions Character: Symbols Boolean: True/false
Slide 12 - 0-12 Variable Declarations float Length, Width; int Price, Total, Tax; char Symbol;
Slide 13 - 0-13 Figure 6.5 A two-dimensional array with two rows and nine columns
Slide 14 - 0-14 Figure 6.6 The conceptual structure of the aggregate type Employee
Slide 15 - 0-15 Figure 6.7 The for loop structure and its representation in C++, C#, and Java
Slide 16 - 0-16 Procedural Units Local versus Global Variables Formal versus Actual Parameters Passing parameters by value versus reference Procedures versus Functions
Slide 17 - 0-17 Figure 6.8 The flow of control involving a procedure
Slide 18 - 0-18 Figure 6.9 The procedure ProjectPopulation written in the programming language C
Slide 19 - Figure 6.10 Executing the procedure Demo and passing parameters by value
Slide 20 - Figure 6.11 Executing the procedure Demo and passing parameters by reference
Slide 21 - 0-21 Figure 6.12 The function CylinderVolume written in the programming language C
Slide 22 - 0-22 Figure 6.13 The translation process
Slide 23 - 0-23 Figure 6.14 A syntax diagram of our if-then-else pseudocode statement
Slide 24 - 0-24 Figure 6.15 Syntax diagrams describing the structure of a simple algebraic expression
Slide 25 - 0-25 Figure 6.16 The parse tree for the string x + y x z based on the syntax diagrams in Figure 6.17
Slide 26 - Figure 6.17 Two distinct parse trees for the statement if B1 then if B2 then S1 else S2
Slide 27 - 0-27 Figure 6.18 An object-oriented approach to the translation process
Slide 28 - 0-28 Objects and Classes Object: Active program unit containing both data and procedures Class: A template from which objects are constructed An object is called an instance of the class.
Slide 29 - 0-29 Figure 6.19 The structure of a class describing a laser weapon in a computer game
Slide 30 - 0-30 Components of an Object Instance Variable: Variable within an object Holds information within the object Method: Procedure within an object Describes the actions that the object can perform Constructor: Special method used to initialize a new object when it is first constructed
Slide 31 - 0-31 Figure 6.21 A class with a constructor
Slide 32 - 0-32 Object Integrity Encapsulation: A way of restricting access to the internal components of an object Private Public
Slide 33 - 0-33 Figure 6.22 Our LaserClass definition using encapsulation as it would appear in a Java or C# program
Slide 34 - 0-34 Additional Object-oriented Concepts Inheritance: Allows new classes to be defined in terms of previously defined classes Polymorphism: Allows method calls to be interpreted by the object that receives the call
Slide 35 - 0-35 Programming Concurrent Activities Parallel (or concurrent) processing: simultaneous execution of multiple processes True concurrent processing requires multiple CPUs Can be simulated using time-sharing with a single CPU
Slide 36 - 0-36 Figure 6.23 Spawning threads
Slide 37 - 0-37 Controlling Access to Data Mutual Exclusion: A method for ensuring that data can be accessed by only one process at a time Monitor: A data item augmented with the ability to control access to itself
Slide 38 - 0-38 Declarative Programming Resolution: Combining two or more statements to produce a new statement (that is a logical consequence of the originals). Example: (P OR Q) AND (R OR Q) resolves to (P OR R) Resolvent: A new statement deduced by resolution Clause form: A statement whose elementary components are connected by the Boolean operation OR Unification: Assigning a value to a variable so that two statements become “compatible.”
Slide 39 - 0-39 Figure 6.24 Resolving the statements (P OR Q) and (R OR ¬Q) to produce (P OR R)
Slide 40 - 0-40 Figure 6.25 Resolving the statements (P OR Q), (R OR ¬Q), ¬R, and ¬P
Slide 41 - 0-41 Prolog Fact: A Prolog statement establishing a fact Consists of a single predicate Form: predicateName(arguments). Example: parent(bill, mary). Rule: A Prolog statement establishing a general rule Form: conclusion :- premise. :- means “if” Example: wise(X) :- old(X). Example: faster(X,Z) :- faster(X,Y), faster(Y,Z).