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Slide 1 - Python Programming, 1/e 1 Python Programming:An Introduction to Computer Science Chapter 6 Defining Functions
Slide 2 - Python Programming, 1/e 2 Objectives To understand why programmers divide programs up into sets of cooperating functions. To be able to define new functions in Python. To understand the details of function calls and parameter passing in Python.
Slide 3 - Python Programming, 1/e 3 Objectives (cont.) To write programs that use functions to reduce code duplication and increase program modularity.
Slide 4 - Python Programming, 1/e 4 The Function of Functions So far, we’ve seen four different types of functions: Our programs comprise a single function called main(). Built-in Python functions (abs) Functions from the standard libraries (math.sqrt) Functions from the graphics module (p.getX())
Slide 5 - Python Programming, 1/e 5 The Function of Functions In the code on page 166, the code for drawing the bars occurs in two different places. The first bar is drawn immediately before the loop. The remaining bars are drawn within the loop.
Slide 6 - Python Programming, 1/e 6 The Function of Functions Having similar or identical code in more than one place has some drawbacks. Issue one: writing the same code twice or more. Issue two: This same code must be maintained in two separate places. Functions can be used to reduce code duplication and make programs more easily understood and maintained.
Slide 7 - Python Programming, 1/e 7 Functions, Informally A function is like a subprogram, a small program inside of a program. The basic idea – we write a sequence of statements and then give that sequence a name. We can then execute this sequence at any time by referring to the name.
Slide 8 - Python Programming, 1/e 8 Functions, Informally The part of the program that creates a function is called a function definition. When the function is used in a program, we say the definition is called or invoked.
Slide 9 - Python Programming, 1/e 9 Functions, Informally Happy Birthday lyrics…def main(): print "Happy birthday to you!" print "Happy birthday to you!" print "Happy birthday, dear Fred..." print "Happy birthday to you!" Gives us this…>>> main()Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Fred...Happy birthday to you!
Slide 10 - Python Programming, 1/e 10 Functions, Informally There’s some duplicated code in the program! (print "Happy birthday to you!") We can define a function to print out this line:def happy(): print "Happy birthday to you!“ With this function, we can rewrite our program.
Slide 11 - Python Programming, 1/e 11 Functions, Informally The new program – def singFred(): happy() happy() print "Happy birthday, dear Fred...“ happy() Gives us this output –>>> singFred()Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Fred...Happy birthday to you!
Slide 12 - Python Programming, 1/e 12 Functions, Informally Creating this function saved us a lot of typing! What if it’s Lucy’s birthday? We could write a new singLucy function!def singLucy(): happy() happy() print "Happy birthday, dear Lucy...“ happy()
Slide 13 - Python Programming, 1/e 13 Functions, Informally We could write a main program to sing to both Lucy and Freddef main(): singFred() print singLucy() This gives us this new output>>> main()Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Fred..Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Lucy...Happy birthday to you!
Slide 14 - Python Programming, 1/e 14 Functions, Informally This is working great! But… there’s still a lot of code duplication. The only difference between singFred and singLucy is the name in the third print statement. These two routines could be collapsed together by using a parameter.
Slide 15 - Python Programming, 1/e 15 Functions, Informally The generic function singdef sing(person): happy() happy() print "Happy birthday, dear", person + ".“ happy() This function uses a parameter named person. A paramater is a variable that is initialized when the function is called.
Slide 16 - Python Programming, 1/e 16 Functions, Informally Our new output –>>> sing("Fred")Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Fred.Happy birthday to you! We can put together a new main program!
Slide 17 - Python Programming, 1/e 17 Functions, Informally Our new main program:def main(): sing("Fred") print sing("Lucy") Gives us this output:>>> main()Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Fred.Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday to you!Happy birthday, dear Lucy.Happy birthday to you!
Slide 18 - Python Programming, 1/e 18 Future Value with a Function In the future value graphing program, we see similar code twice:# Draw bar for initial principalbar = Rectangle(Point(0, 0), Point(1, principal))bar.setFill("green")bar.setWidth(2)bar.draw(win) bar = Rectangle(Point(year, 0), Point(year+1, principal))bar.setFill("green")bar.setWidth(2)bar.draw(win)
Slide 19 - Python Programming, 1/e 19 Future Value with a Function To properly draw the bars, we need three pieces of information. The year the bar is for How tall the bar should be The window the bar will be drawn in These three values can be supplied as parameters to the function.
Slide 20 - Python Programming, 1/e 20 Future Value with a Function The resulting function looks like this:def drawBar(window, year, height): # Draw a bar in window starting at year with given height bar = Rectangle(Point(year, 0), Point(year+1, height)) bar.setFill("green") bar.setWidth(2) bar.draw(window) To use this function, we supply the three values. If win is a Graphwin, we can draw a bar for year 0 and principal of $2000 using this call:drawBar(win, 0, 2000)
Slide 21 - Python Programming, 1/e 21 Functions and Parameters: The Details It makes sense to include the year and the principal in the drawBar function, but why send the window variable? The scope of a variable refers to the places in a program a given variable can be referenced.
Slide 22 - Python Programming, 1/e 22 Functions and Parameters: The Details Each function is its own little subprogram. The variables used inside of one function are local to that function, even if they happen to have the same name as variables that appear inside of another function. The only way for a function to see a variable from another function is for that variable to be passed as a parameter.
Slide 23 - Python Programming, 1/e 23 Functions and Parameters: The Details Since the GraphWin in the variable win is created inside of main, it is not directly accessible in drawBar. The window parameter in drawBar gets assigned the value of win from main when drawBar is called.
Slide 24 - Python Programming, 1/e 24 Functions and Parameters: The Details A function definition looks like this:def (): The name of the function must be an identifier Formal-parameters is a possibly empty list of variable names
Slide 25 - Python Programming, 1/e 25 Functions and Parameters: The Details Formal parameters, like all variables used in the function, are only accessible in the body of the function. Variables with identical names elsewhere in the program are distinct from the formal parameters and variables inside of the function body.
Slide 26 - Python Programming, 1/e 26 Functions and Parameters: The Details A function is called by using its name followed by a list of actual parameters or arguments.() When Python comes to a function call, it initiates a four-step process.
Slide 27 - Python Programming, 1/e 27 Functions and Parameters: The Details The calling program suspends execution at the point of the call. The formal parameters of the function get assigned the values supplied by the actual parameters in the call. The body of the function is executed. Control returns to the point just after where the function was called.
Slide 28 - Python Programming, 1/e 28 Functions and Parameters: The Details Let’s trace through the following code:sing(“Fred”)printsing(“Lucy”) When Python gets to sing(“Fred”), execution of main is temporarily suspended. Python looks up the definition of sing and sees that it has one formal parameter, person.
Slide 29 - Python Programming, 1/e 29 Functions and Parameters: The Detail The formal parameter is assigned the value of the actual parameter. It’s as if the following statement had been executed:person = “Fred”
Slide 30 - Python Programming, 1/e 30 Functions and Parameters: The Details Note that the variable person has just been initialized.
Slide 31 - Python Programming, 1/e 31 Functions and Parameters: The Details At this point, Python begins executing the body of sing. The first statement is another function call, to happy. What happens next? Python suspends the execution of sing and transfers control to happy. happy consists of a single print, which is executed and control returns to where it left off in sing.
Slide 32 - Python Programming, 1/e 32 Functions and Parameters: The Details Execution continues in this way with two more trips to happy. When Python gets to the end of sing, control returns to main and continues immediately following the function call.
Slide 33 - Python Programming, 1/e 33 Functions and Parameters: The Details Notice that the person variable in sing has disappeared! The memory occupied by local function variables is reclaimed when the function exits. Local variables do not retain any values from one function execution to the next.
Slide 34 - Python Programming, 1/e 34 Functions and Parameters: The Details The next statement is the bare print, which produces a blank line. Python encounters another call to sing, and control transfers to the sing function, with the formal parameter “Lucy”.
Slide 35 - Python Programming, 1/e 35 Functions and Parameters: The Details The body of sing is executed for Lucy with its three side trips to happy and control returns to main.
Slide 36 - Python Programming, 1/e 36 Functions and Parameters: The Details
Slide 37 - Python Programming, 1/e 37 Functions and Paramters: The Details One thing not addressed in this example was multiple parameters. In this case the formal and actual parameters are matched up based on position, e.g. the first actual parameter is assigned to the first formal parameter, the second actual parameter is assigned to the second formal parameter, etc.
Slide 38 - Python Programming, 1/e 38 Functions and Parameters: The Details As an example, consider the call to drawBar:drawBar(win, 0, principal) When control is passed to drawBar, these parameters are matched up to the formal parameters in the function heading:def drawBar(window, year, height):
Slide 39 - Python Programming, 1/e 39 Functions and Parameters: The Details The net effect is as if the function body had been prefaced with three assignment statements:window = winyear = 0height = principal
Slide 40 - Python Programming, 1/e 40 Getting Results from a Function Passing parameters provides a mechanism for initializing the variables in a function. Parameters act as inputs to a function. We can call a function many times and get different results by changing its parameters.
Slide 41 - Python Programming, 1/e 41 Functions That Return Values We’ve already seen numerous examples of functions that return values to the caller.discRt = math.sqrt(b*b – 4*a*c) The value b*b – 4*a*c is the actual parameter of math.sqrt. We say sqrt returns the square root of its argument.
Slide 42 - Python Programming, 1/e 42 Functions That Return Values This function returns the square of a number:def square(x): return x*x When Python encounters return, it exits the function and returns control to the point where the function was called. In addition, the value(s) provided in the return statement are sent back to the caller as an expression result.
Slide 43 - Python Programming, 1/e 43 Functions That Return Values >>> square(3)9 >>> print square(4)16 >>> x = 5>>> y = square(x)>>> print y25 >>> print square(x) + square(3)34
Slide 44 - Python Programming, 1/e 44 Functions That Return Values We can use the square function to write a routine to calculate the distance between (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). def distance(p1, p2): dist = math.sqrt(square(p2.getX() - p1.getX()) + square(p2.getY() - p1.getY())) return dist
Slide 45 - Python Programming, 1/e 45 Functions That Return Values Sometimes a function needs to return more than one value. To do this, simply list more than one expression in the return statement. def sumDiff(x, y): sum = x + y diff = x – y return sum, diff
Slide 46 - Python Programming, 1/e 46 Functions That Return Values When calling this function, use simultaneous assignment. num1, num2 = input("Please enter two numbers (num1, num2) ")s, d = sumDiff(num1, num2)print "The sum is", s, "and the difference is", d As before, the values are assigned based on position, so s gets the first value returned (the sum), and d gets the second (the difference).
Slide 47 - Python Programming, 1/e 47 Functions That Return Values One “gotcha” – all Python functions return a value, whether they contain a return statement or not. Functions without a return hand back a special object, denoted None. A common problem is writing a value-returning function and omitting the return!
Slide 48 - Python Programming, 1/e 48 Functions That Return Values If your value-returning functions produce strange messages, check to make sure you remembered to include the return!
Slide 49 - Python Programming, 1/e 49 Functions that Modify Parameters Return values are the main way to send information from a function back to the caller. Sometimes, we can communicate back to the caller by making changes to the function parameters. Understanding when and how this is possible requires the mastery of some subtle details about how assignment works and the relationship between actual and formal parameters.
Slide 50 - Python Programming, 1/e 50 Functions that Modify Parameters Suppose you are writing a program that manages bank accounts. One function we would need to do is to accumulate interest on the account. Let’s look at a first-cut at the function. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance
Slide 51 - Python Programming, 1/e 51 Functions that Modify Parameters The intent is to set the balance of the account to a new value that includes the interest amount. Let’s write a main program to test this:def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 52 - Python Programming, 1/e 52 Functions that Modify Parameters We hope that that the 5% will be added to the amount, returning 1050. >>> test()1000 What went wrong? Nothing!
Slide 53 - Python Programming, 1/e 53 Functions that Modify Parameters The first two lines of the test function create two local variables called amount and rate which are given the initial values of 1000 and 0.05, respectively. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 54 - Python Programming, 1/e 54 Functions that Modify Parameters Control then transfers to the addInterest function. The formal parameters balance and rate are assigned the values of the actual parameters amount and rate. Even though rate appears in both, they are separate variables (because of scope rules). def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 55 - Python Programming, 1/e 55 Functions that Modify Parameters The assignment of the parameters causes the variables balance and rate in addInterest to refer to the values of the actual parameters! def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 56 - Python Programming, 1/e 56 Functions that Modify Parameters
Slide 57 - Python Programming, 1/e 57 Functions that Modify Parameters Executing the first line of addInterest creates a new variable, newBalance. balance is then assigned the value of newBalance. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 58 - Python Programming, 1/e 58 Functions that Modify Parameters balance now refers to the same value as newBalance, but this had no effect on amount in the test function. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 59 - Python Programming, 1/e 59 Functions that Modify Parameters
Slide 60 - Python Programming, 1/e 60 Functions that Modify Parameters Execution of addInterest has completed and control returns to test. The local variables, including the parameters, in addInterest go away, but amount and rate in the test function still refer to their initial values! def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print amount
Slide 61 - Python Programming, 1/e 61 Functions that Modify Parameters To summarize: the formal parameters of a function only receive the values of the actual parameters. The function does not have access to the variable that holds the actual parameter. Python is said to pass all parameters by value.
Slide 62 - Python Programming, 1/e 62 Functions that Modify Parameters Some programming languages (C++, Ada, and many more) do allow variables themselves to be sent as parameters to a function. This mechanism is said to pass parameters by reference. When a new value is assigned to the formal parameter, the value of the variable in the calling program actually changes.
Slide 63 - Python Programming, 1/e 63 Functions that Modify Parameters Since Python doesn’t have this capability, one alternative would be to change the addInterest function so that it returns the newBalance.
Slide 64 - Python Programming, 1/e 64 Functions that Modify Parameters def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) return newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 amount = addInterest(amount, rate) print amount test()
Slide 65 - Python Programming, 1/e 65 Functions that Modify Parameters Instead of looking at a single account, say we are writing a program for a bank that deals with many accounts. We could store the account balances in a list, then add the accrued interest to each of the balances in the list. We could update the first balance in the list with code like:balances[0] = balances[0] * (1 + rate)
Slide 66 - Python Programming, 1/e 66 Functions that Modify Parameters This code says, “multiply the value in the 0th position of the list by (1 + rate) and store the result back into the 0th position of the list.” A more general way to do this would be with a loop that goes through positions 0, 1, …, length – 1.
Slide 67 - Python Programming, 1/e 67 Functions that Modify Parameters # addinterest3.py # Illustrates modification of a mutable parameter (a list). def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print amounts test()
Slide 68 - Python Programming, 1/e 68 Functions that Modify Parameters Remember, our original code had these values:[1000, 2200, 800, 360] The program returns:[1050.0, 2310.0, 840.0, 378.0] What happened? Python passes parameters by value, but it looks like amounts has been changed!
Slide 69 - Python Programming, 1/e 69 Functions that Modify Parameters The first two lines of test create the variables amounts and rate. The value of the variable amounts is a list object that contains four int values. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print amounts
Slide 70 - Python Programming, 1/e 70 Functions that Modify Parameters
Slide 71 - Python Programming, 1/e 71 Functions that Modify Parameters Next, addInterest executes. The loop goes through each index in the range 0, 1, …, length –1 and updates that value in balances. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print amounts
Slide 72 - Python Programming, 1/e 72 Functions that Modify Parameters
Slide 73 - Python Programming, 1/e 73 Functions that Modify Parameters In the diagram the old values are left hanging around to emphasize that the numbers in the boxes have not changed, but the new values were created and assigned into the list. The old values will be destroyed during garbage collection. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print amounts
Slide 74 - Python Programming, 1/e 74 Functions that Modify Parameters When addInterest terminates, the list stored in amounts now contains the new values. The variable amounts wasn’t changed (it’s still a list), but the state of that list has changed, and this change is visible to the calling program.
Slide 75 - Python Programming, 1/e 75 Functions that Modify Parameters Parameters are always passed by value. However, if the value of the variable is a mutable object (like a list of graphics object), then changes to the state of the object will be visible to the calling program. This situation is another example of the aliasing issue discussed in Chapter 5!
Slide 76 - Python Programming, 1/e 76 Functions and Program Structure So far, functions have been used as a mechanism for reducing code duplication. Another reason to use functions is to make your programs more modular. As the algorithms you design get increasingly complex, it gets more and more difficult to make sense out of the programs.
Slide 77 - Python Programming, 1/e 77 Functions and Program Structure One way to deal with this complexity is to break an algorithm down into smaller subprograms, each of which makes sense on its own. This topic will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 9.
Slide 78 - Python Programming, 1/e 78 Functions and Program Structure def main(): # Introduction print "This program plots the growth of a 10 year investment." # Get principal and interest rate principal = input("Enter the initial principal: ") apr = input("Enter the annualized interest rate: ") # Create a graphics window with labels on left edge win = GraphWin("Investment Growth Chart", 320, 240) win.setBackground("white") win.setCoords(-1.75,-200, 11.5, 10400) Text(Point(-1, 0), ' 0.0K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 2500), ' 2.5K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 5000), ' 5.0K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 7500), ' 7.5k').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 10000), '10.0K').draw(win) # Draw bar for initial principal drawBar(win, 0, principal) # Draw a bar for each subsequent year for year in range(1, 11): principal = principal * (1 + apr) drawBar(win, year, principal) raw_input("Press to quit.") win.close()
Slide 79 - Python Programming, 1/e 79 Functions and Program Structure We can make this program more readable by moving the middle eight lines that create the window where the chart will be drawn into a value returning function.
Slide 80 - Python Programming, 1/e 80 Functions and Program Structure def createLabeledWindow(): window = GraphWin("Investment Growth Chart", 320, 240) window.setBackground("white") window.setCoords(-1.75,-200, 11.5, 10400) Text(Point(-1, 0), ' 0.0K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 2500), ' 2.5K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 5000), ' 5.0K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 7500), ' 7.5k').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 10000), '10.0K').draw(window) return window def main(): print "This program plots the growth of a 10 year investment." principal = input("Enter the initial principal: ") apr = input("Enter the annualized interest rate: ") win = createLabeledWindow() drawBar(win, 0, principal) for year in range(1, 11): principal = principal * (1 + apr) drawBar(win, year, principal) raw_input("Press to quit.") win.close()