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Slide 2 - PRE-HISTORY of the EAC Europe (esp Germany, France, & Denmark) early producer of films Truly competitive Historical & economic factors forced Europe to struggle to compete with Hollywood
Slide 3 - PRE-HISTORY of the EAC Major forces have been the 2 World Wars The Impact of WW 1 W Europe devastated, economy ruined, but US unharmed; Hollywood became dominant film producer Europe created distinctive national cinemas: GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM (1919-24) FRENCH IMPRESSIONISM (1917-30)
Slide 4 - PRE-HISTORY of the EAC After WW 2, a similar situation occurred W Europe created EAC, which promotes “auteurism” Films meant to be personal expressions of individual artists
Slide 5 - PRE-HISTORY of the EAC ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EAC Stimulated in 1950s & 60s by 4 events Establishment of film studies in universities Rise of serious film criticism Film festivals Establishment of “art theatres” in the US
Slide 6 - THE EAC’S FORM & SUBJECT MATTER Not subject to Hollywood's moral code of the 1950s Nudity, sexual situations & language not allowed in the CHC Advertising emphasized this aspect Like the CHC, narrative fiction films Cause & effect not as closely linked Led critics to describe EAC as more realistic than CHC
Slide 7 - THE EAC’S FORM & SUBJECT MATTER Characters more complex than in CHC Rarely have clearly defined goals Conflicts tend to be within a character, not between characters CLOSURE Smaller degree of CLOSURE than those of the CHC More like real life? Life is more ambiguous than is Hollywood cinema We tend to consider what we can’t explain as statements of the auteur
Slide 8 - THE EAC’S STYLE EAC is more subjective than CHC, with dream sequences & presentation of interior thoughts of characters not clearly marked Narration of EAC often overt Obvious that there is a narrator Highlights presence of a controlling power (the director) Highlights construction of the film (SELF-REFLEXIVE)
Slide 9 - THE EAC’S STYLE We know less than the characters know, more flashforwards & techniques such as slow motion, etc. EAC often called “stylized film” SPACE & TIME are often not articulated clearly as in the CHC
Slide 10 - CONVENTIONS OF THE EAC GAPS created in cause & effect relationship of events CHANCE: Events often happen by chance BIOGRAPHY: a character drifting through life “SLICE-OF-LIFE”: events that take place in a bar, cafe, etc.
Slide 11 - CONVENTIONS OF THE EAC THE BOUNDARY SITUATION Character may face a crisis Often accompanied by conventions of mise-en-scene: static postures, smiles that fade, aimless walks, etc. Often accompanied by conventions of editing & cinematography: flashbacks, freeze-frames, slow motion, etc. AMBIGUITY: ultimate explanation for EAC films is that there is no explanation
Slide 12 - THE EAC & REALISM Is the EAC actually more realistic? Or another way of presenting reality, another set of conventions?
Slide 14 - EARLY LIFE Born in Spain, 1900, of upper-class parents Educated in Catholic schools Attended University of Madrid, met Salvador Dali Studied film, joined community of avant-garde artists active in Paris
Slide 15 - FILM CAREER 1929, Buñuel & Dali made An Andalusian Dog (Un chien andalou) Based on dreams & fantasies, designed to defy interpretation, shock middle-class audience Popular among avant-garde community in France & worldwide
Slide 16 - An Andalusian Dog (1929)
Slide 17 - An Andalusian Dog (1929)
Slide 18 - An Andalusian Dog (1929)
Slide 19 - The Age of Gold (L'Age d'Or, 1930)
Slide 20 - Land without Bread (Las Hurdes, 1932)
Slide 21 - FILM CAREER Did not make another film until 1947 During the Spanish Civil War, Buñuel worked in Hollywood During WW2, Buñuel worked on films for US Army until it became known that he was an atheist 1947, went to Mexico & made commercial films; inserted more & more his own ideas & social criticism about religion, sex & middle class
Slide 22 - The Young and The Damned (Los olvidados, 1950)
Slide 23 - FILM CAREER 1960s, returned to France Major international director, but never big commercial success Films continue obsession with sex, religion & middle class More tolerance & a sense of humor, ambiguity
Slide 24 - That Obscure Object of Desire (Cet obcur objet du desir, 1977)
Slide 25 - LUIS BUÑUEL (1900-1983) “Thank God I’m an atheist”