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Published on : Feb 10, 2014
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Slide 1 - Understanding Pollution Dynamics in P2P File Sharing Uichin Lee, Min Choi*, Junghoo Cho M. Y. Sanadidi, Mario Gerla UCLA, KAIST* IPTPS’06
Slide 2 - Outline Pollution in P2P file sharing User behavior study Pollution model Impact on P2P traffic loads Conclusion
Slide 3 - Pollution in P2P File Sharing Pollution is a defensive mechanism to discourage illegal downloads of copyrighted materials. Polluting a title (e.g., Maroon5 – This Love) Polluters aggressively Tamper content or meta-data of files to create “polluted versions.” Pour many polluted versions into the system. Users powerlessly Encounter the polluted files with the genuine ones Randomly select one without knowing pollution.
Slide 4 - Too Many Polluted Files & Why? KaZaA is severely polluted!! Reported by Liang et al. (May, 2004) “My Band” 70% out of 1,816,663 copies Given that polluters have limited capabilities (bandwidth/processing power), current level of pollution is too high. Recent models were not able to clearly explain such pollution dynamics. To better understand pollution dynamics, P2P user behavior must be examined.
Slide 5 - User Behavior Study Goal How does user behavior impact pollution spread? User behavior study setup Two stage test Questionnaire : familiarity / usage patterns Behavior observation : awareness / slackness 30 graduate students (UCLA, KAIST)
Slide 6 - Questionnaire - Familiarity of Participants Asked five questions related to P2P Do you know how popular P2P software works? Do you know multi-part downloading or swarming? …
Slide 7 - Questionnaire - Usage Patterns P2P usage pattern 1. Download preparation: send queries/start downloading 2. Download: check download status 3. Post-download: check files/decide to share? Asked few questions related to each stage
Slide 8 - Questionnaire - Usage Patterns (Results) 3) Post-download Stage 1) Preparation Stage 2) Download Stage
Slide 9 - User Behavior Observation Metrics Awareness probability : the fraction of users who recognize pollution in a downloaded file Slackness distribution : distribution of intervals between download completion time and quality checking time Setup Modified P2P software to monitor user behavior Users are asked to use it and to download files Controlled downloading speed (50K - 1Mbps)
Slide 10 - User Behavior Observation Pollution techniques (on MP3 files) Meta-data modification : changed names Quality degradation Incomplete file : cut (30-60 seconds beg./end.) Noise insertion: every 15 seconds Shuffled content : randomly shuffled content Tested files Applied each pollution technique to four songs 40 popular songs (20 polluted + 20 clean) For each download, a user checks familiarity/pollution
Slide 11 - User Behavior Observation Awareness Shuffled Content Noise Insertion Incomplete File Quality degradation Meta-data Modification Awareness
Slide 12 - User Behavior Observation Slackness – bimodal distribution
Slide 13 - Pollution Model Discrete time analysis by extending the previous model and incorporating study results Total M users in the system G0/B0 : initial # genuine/bogus copies Download process 1. At step k, a user (never downloaded before) downloads a file with probability pS (i.e., interest level) 2. After download, the authenticity is checked after an interval k with probability sk where t <= L (max. slackness) 3. Realizes bogus with probability pa (i.e., awareness); if so, he will try again with probability pr (i.e., re-download prob.) 4. Share the file with probability pc (i.e., cooperativeness)
Slide 14 - Pollution Model # downloads at k (Nk) Ever downloaded users (Dk) # incoming genuine/bogus files at k (gk , bk) Total Gk and Bk files are shared in the system M: total number of users ps: user’s interest rate Dk: ever downloaded a file Gk: total # good files Bk: total # bogus files rk: # of re-downloads at k
Slide 15 - Pollution Model Total # genuine files (Gk+1) Total # bogus files (Bk+1) Prob. of not sharing bad files # re-downloads at k+1 L: max. slackness gk: # incoming good files at k bk: # incoming bad files at k sj: prob. of checking after j pc: cooperation probability pa: awareness probability pr: re-download probability Max Slackness: L=3 Total # checking at k: gk-2s3+ gk-1s2 + gks1
Slide 16 - Pollution Model Analysis Iterative solution of the proposed model Metric Pollution level = # polluted copies / # genuine copies Setting M=15,000 (total number of users) L=48 (max. slackness) ps = 1/24 (gets interested in every 24 hrs.) pr = 1 (re-downloads always!) pc = 0.25 (cooperativeness) Initial pollution level = 20
Slide 17 - Pollution Model Impact of user awareness Pa = 1 Polluted Files Pa = 0.9 Polluted Files Pa = 0.8 Polluted Files Pa = 1 Genuine Pa = 0.9 Genuine Pa = 0.8 Genuine
Slide 18 - Pollution Model Pollution level (k) = #polluted (k)/#genuine (k) Pa = 1 Pa = 0.95 Pa = 0.90 Pa = 0.85 Pa = 0.80 Time Step Pollution Level
Slide 19 - Pollution Model Increasing initial pollution level Awareness is critical to make an effective attack Final Pollution Level Awareness (pa) Initial pollution level
Slide 20 - Impact on P2P Traffic Loads Popular files are targets of the polluters!! Users will re-download with probability pr From our model, we can estimate the total # of re-downloads In the worst case, # of re-downloads is x3 larger!! 60% of the Internet traffic is P2P
Slide 21 - Conclusion User behavior study shows Users are not error-free in recognizing pollution Users’ slackness follows a bimodal distribution Developed an analytical model Analytic model shows Awareness is one of the key factors in pollution dynamics Pollution has a great impact on the P2P traffic loads