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Slide 1 - Overview of Computers & Programming Languages Chapter 1
Slide 2 - 2 Chapter Contents Computer History Elements of a Computer System Hardware Software Language of a Computer Evolution of Programming Languages High Level Languages Analysis-Coding-Execution Object Oriented Programming
Slide 3 - 3 Computer History 1950's Large devices, accessible to few people 1960's Commercial usage emerges Operated by experts 1970's Computers cheaper, smaller 1990's Computers fast, small, inexpensive Owned and used by many people
Slide 4 - 4 Elements of a Computer System Hardware
Slide 5 - 5 Elements of a Computer System Software Systems programs Control the computer Includes Operating System Applications programs Word processors Compilers Spreadsheets Data Bases
Slide 6 - 6 The Language of a Computer Uses digital signals all 0's and 1's (binary) bits (BInary digiTs) Data and commands stored in binary 8 bits in a byte ASCII character stored in a byte Integers stored in 2 or 4 bytes
Slide 7 - 7 Evolution of Programming Languages Early computers programmed in machine languages All binary numbers Assembly language used mnemonic codes Codes translated into machine language by a program called the "assembler"
Slide 8 - 8 Evolution of Programming Languages High level languages read like combination of English and algebra Translated into machine language by a program called a compiler write_string (outfile,cust_name,'l',23); first_line = 1; ord.read_order(infile); while (!ord.done()) { if ( !first_line) write_string (outfile," ",'l',23); ord.print_order (outfile,part_list); first_line = 0; ord.read_order(infile); }
Slide 9 - 9 Processing a High-Level Language Program Source program created with an editor Source code translated into machine language by compiler results in a .obj file (object code) Linker combines common library routines with object code Results in a .exe file (executable code) Loader brings executable code into memory and it is run
Slide 10 - 10 Processing a High-Level Language Program
Slide 11 - 11 Analysis-Coding-Execution Algorithm :A step-by-step problem-solving process in which a solution is arrived at in a finite amount of time Steps must be simple, unambiguous Steps must be performed in specified order Steps must solve the problem
Slide 12 - 12 Analysis-Coding-Execution Problem solving process Analyze problem, design solution algorithm Implement algorithm in a programming language, verify Maintain program, adapting it to changes in problem requirements
Slide 13 - 13 Analysis-Coding-Execution
Slide 14 - 14 Structured Programming Thoroughly understand the problem Determine the output desired the required input processing that will occur Divide the problem into sub-problems Other names for this process structured design top-down design stepwise refinement modular programming
Slide 15 - 15 Object-Oriented Programming Identify components of the problem which are objects Usually these are the nouns in the program description Identify operations which are performed on the objects Often these are the verbs in the program description