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Slide 1 - Nuclear Weapons Alexander May
Slide 2 - Nuclear Weapons About 12,000 nuclear weapons are deployed in 14 states. Five states: New Mexico, Georgia, Washington, Nevada, North Dakota which account for 70 percent of the total. The others are in Wyoming, Missouri, Montana, Louisiana, Texas, Nebraska, California, Virginia, Colorado. Overseas, about 150 U.S. nuclear weapons are at 10 air bases in seven countries: Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey and Britain. The United States is believed to be the only nation with nuclear weapons outside of its borders. The number of U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe has greatly decreased from more than 6,000 in the early 1980s.
Slide 3 - Nuclear Weapons A nuclear weapon is so powerful that one single weapon explosives can be capable of destroying or seriously disabling an entire city. In the history of warfare, nuclear weapons have been used for World War II. August 6, 1945, the United States dropped a uranium device after the name “Little Boy” on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Nuclear weapons have been detonated, mostly for testing purposes, by the following seven countries: the United States, Soviet Union, France, United Kingdom, People’s Republic of China, India and Pakistan. Basically these countries are the declared nuclear powers countries.
Slide 4 - Nuclear Weapons History The first nuclear weapon was created by the United States. The first weapons was developed basically out of fear that Nazi Germany would first develop them. They were used against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. The Soviet Union developed that tested their first nuclear weapon in 1949. The USA and USSR wanted to develop weapons powered by nuclear fusion during the 1950s. During the 1960s, it became possible for nuclear weapons to be delivered anywhere in the world.
Slide 5 - History Cont… The Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national powers. Nuclear testing was to test new designs as well as to send political messages. Other nations also developed nuclear weapons, including the United Kingdom, France, and China. There was a “nuclear club” which wanted to attempt to limit the spread of nuclear proliferation to other nations. There was at least three other countries India, South Africa, Pakistan, and most likely Israel who developed nuclear arms. During the end of the Cold War in the 1990s, the Russians Federation inherited the weapons of the former USSR, and along with the USA pledged to reduce their stockpile for increased international safety.
Slide 6 - History Cont… Nuclear proliferation is still going on, with Pakistan testing their first weapon in 1998, and the state of North Korea claiming to have developed nuclear weapons in 2004. Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes. Nuclear weapons has played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s. In 1995, the US and USSR Russia launching its weapons in retaliation for a supposed attack. During the Cold War the US and USSR came close to nuclear warfare many times. Now 2005, there are at least 29,000 nuclear weapons held by at least seven countries, though 96% of these are in the possession of just two the United States and the Russian Federation.
Slide 7 - Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The United States Army Air Force dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9, 1945 during World War II. There goal was basically to secure the surrender of Japan. At least 120,000 people died immediately from the attacks. Thousands of people died years after from the effects of nuclear radiation. About 95% of the casualties were civilians. Japan sent notice of its unconditional surrender to the allies on August 15, a week after the bombings. These bombings were the first and only nuclear attacks in the world history.
Slide 8 - Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cont… The role of bombings in Japan’s was to make them surrender. The U.S. believed that the bombing ended the war sooner. In Japan, the general public tends to think that the bombings were needless as the preparation for the surrender was in progress. The survivors of the bombings are called hibakusha, a Japanese word that literally translates to “bomb-affected people.” The suffering of the bombing is the root of Japan’s postwar pacifism, and the nation has sought the abolition of nuclear weapons from the world ever since.
Slide 9 - Aftermath Attack On Japan The nuclear attacks on Japan occurred during hot weather. So it was more effected toward the people. Many people were outside and wearing light clothing's. This lady's skin is burned in a patterns corresponding to the dark patterns of her kimono. The dark sections of clothing absorbed more heat and burnt her to her flash. So basically darker cloths would make it worst.
Slide 10 - Aftermath Cont… This was the effect of Nagasaki it left a heavy destruction at high blast. This bomb created a smoke that would basically harm people. The smokestacks happen from the open at the top. The blast wave may have traveled down the stacks bringing pressures toward were it blast. The blast was so powerful it ruin almost most of the country.
Slide 11 - Iran Nuclear Weapons Iran's nuclear program began in the Shah's era, including a plan to build 20 nuclear power reactors. 1979, all nuclear activity was suspended. Iran started the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in 1970, and since February 1992 has allowed the IAEA to inspect its nuclear facilities. It is generally believed that Iran's efforts are focused on uranium enrichment, though there are some indications of work on a parallel plutonium effort. Iran claims it is trying to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle to support a civilian energy program, but this same fuel cycle would be applicable to a nuclear weapons development program. Iran appears to have spread their nuclear activities around a number of sites to reduce the risk of detection or attack.
Slide 12 - Iran Nuclear Weapons Since the end of the Iran-Iraq War, They develop weapons of mass destruction. In addition to Iran's legitimate efforts to develop its nuclear power-generation industry, Iran appears to be following a policy of complying with the NPT and building its nuclear power program in such a way that if the appropriate political decision is made, know-how gained in the peaceful sphere could be used to create nuclear weapons. Also they have purchased several nuclear warheads in the early 1990's
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Slide 15 - Iran Cont… Iran does not currently have nuclear weapons. If Iran did have atomic bombs, it would put pressure on other countries in the region. Many Arab countries believe it is unfair that Israel has nuclear weapons. If Arab countries, notably Saudi Arabia but also Egypt and possibly Syria, found themselves caught between a nuclear-armed Israel and a nuclear-armed Iran, it would greatly increase pressures to pursue their own nuclear options. This could result in a regional arms race in the Middle East which is likely to be quite destabilizing, given the number and of conflicts in the region.
Slide 16 - Germany Responses We don’t have nuclear weapons but we are probably able to get some. However our government has signed the agreement against nuclear weapons so we think it’s good that Germany doesn’t have any. I hope that also no company in Germany supports the development of nuclear weapons and I could hardly imagine there are any.
Slide 17 - Website’s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki http://library.thinkquest.org/1740/texts/nuclear_weapons/nuclear_weapons.html http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/deployment/ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/iran/nuke.htm http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/iran/nuke/