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Tags : malaria | malaria disease | malaria treatment | MOSQUITO | MALARIA

Published on : Aug 07, 2014
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Slide 2 - War in India Since 1953 , we are fighting with DDT and other insecticides Changing the spraying policies Spending millions of rupees in each five year plans STIILL ,WE ARE NOT ABLE TO WIN THE MOSQUITO –WHY?
Slide 3 - Battle Ground Mosquito army Anopheles species Culex species Aedes Mansonoides Human Army Africans Indians Asians Mexicans Americans Europeans
Slide 4 - Strengths of the Armies Mosquito brain is of doubtful size Resistance development Man’s foolishness Man is having brains Gambusia fish DDT, Pyrethrum, Abate, Malathion etc Mosquito nets, repellents
Slide 5 - Damages due to war Malaria Filariasis Dengue Dengue hemorrhagic fever Japanese encephalitis Chikungunya fever Yellow fever West Nile fever Viral arthritis Rift Valley fever
Slide 6 - Malaria Anopheles mosquito Malaria patient In 100 countries 300-500 million cases/year World 1.1 to 2.7 million deaths per year Africa deaths 961000 SEAR countries 53000 India 20000
Slide 7 - Filariasis Culex mosquito Filarial scrotum Filarial leg 120 millions in 73 countries SEAR countries 31 millions clinical cases, 60 millions mf carriers India 45 prevalence millions , incidence 6 millions per year
Slide 8 - Dengue fever Culex mosquito Patient 20-30 million cases annually in SEAR countries DHF 200000 cases
Slide 9 - Chikungunya India is reeling under epidemic at present. All states are reporting cases
Slide 10 - Aedes Yellow fever in African countries
Slide 11 - ECONOMIC LOSSES Sinton’s statement that “ There is no sector in India that is not affected by malaria” is still true. All sectors, agricultural, industrial, educational are affected. Malaria has lessened the gross domestic product of the nation and there by its all-round development.
Slide 12 - War strategies analysis Why mosquito is winning? Who is to be blamed? What should be our next steps?
Slide 13 - Why mosquito is winning the war?
Slide 14 - INDIA’S INHERENT VULNERABILITY India favouring mosquitoes with its overpopulated urban areas unplanned urban slums vast, poor, illiterate rural population inaccessible , illiterate, superstitious, tribal communities unsafe irrigational projects and industries public with poor and callous health consciousness
Slide 15 - Poor urban town planning Indian towns are increasing in size and population at the cost of environmental safety. Bad town planning without sanitary disposal of solid and liquid wastes from dwellings is leading to breeding of mosquitoes. Poor enforcement of public health legislations regarding waste disposal and mismanagement of funds are the real causes of worst environmental conditions every where.
Slide 16 - Environmental failure at Delhi Best example is Delhi itself , the country ‘s capital city, where all epidemics are occurring since 55 years. Delhi has seen Malaria, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya ,dengue etc. Prime ministers’ relatives, doctors of all India Institute of Medical sciences are also not spared by mosquitoes. Presently, most of the states are reeling under Dengue and Chikungunya fevers.
Slide 17 - Overcrowded urban slums Every city in India is having at least 150 to 200 ill planned settlement slum colonies without any sanitary disposal of wastes Added to that, people living in those slums are ignorant and callous towards environmental sanitation as they are illiterates. The result is mosquito preponderance and diseases. Very few cities are having underground drainage facilities for sewage disposal.
Slide 18 - Industrial sewage Industrial development at the cost of public safety is very natural in India. Industrial wastes are not treated and the industrial sewage is not only polluting the water sources but also increasing vector breeding. Poor enforcement of legislation and corruption are the main reasons for this unhealthy situation
Slide 19 - Rural assets of mosquitoes Vast Agricultural fields Numerous breeding places Poor disposal of liquid wastes from houses Superstitions. customs of rural people refusing anti -mosquito spraying measures and non-cooperation Compounded by Illiteracy of the rural people
Slide 20 - Agricultural vulnerability India , by its nature, is an agricultural country. 75% of its people live on agriculture and they are less aware and don’t bother about mosquito danger, as they are mostly illiterate Agricultural fields and dwellings in villages provide better breeding places for mosquitoes.
Slide 21 - Tribal areas, Mosquito’s Base Camp 44 million people are living in tribal areas of India and are in the grip of tiny enemy Dense forests and difficult hilly geographical terrain has become a boon and shelter to this enemy. Here insecticidal spraying is a tough task.
Slide 22 - Unsafe projects Multipurpose irrigation projects and their channels launched for country’s development have become paradise for mosquitoes Ill maintained canals with their cracks and breaks lead to the project malaria
Slide 23 - Visakhapatnam steel plant In 1989, at Gangavaram,a settlement colony near Visakhapatnam Steel plant ,Andhra Pradesh, malaria epidemic occurred due to improper active surveillance.
Slide 24 - Public sector failure Public sector failure due inadequate infrastructure, improper policies and strategies, mismanagement and corruption ,poor involving of people.
Slide 25 - Private sector failure Private sector never attained its creditability as public health savior except in rare and few occasions Their weakness is their commercial thinking to gain profits. Neither the government believes completely on the private sector nor the private sector believes the government. Private sector was not adequately utilized in vector control.
Slide 26 - Voluntary sector failure Few voluntary agencies are helping vector control and this contribution is inadequate. Most of them are engaged in Mother and child health ,family planning and recently AIDS and tuberculosis. The main reason is, it is easier to get central funds as grants for these reasons Voluntary environmental health projects are becoming less and less .
Slide 27 - Individual level failure Every one thinks that mosquito is not worth bothering He forgets his own responsibility and foolishly propagates mosquitoes and expects the government to control this mosquitoes.
Slide 28 - Community failure Community has become almost insensitive with regard to vector control. The maximum thing they are doing few of them are using mosquito repellents and another few are using mosquito nets. There is no active participation in vector control measures. They are irresponsible by their throwing the garbage everywhere and increasing breeding places.
Slide 29 - Legislative failure In India, most of the acts not implemented. One such is Public Health Act Week enforcement of legislation is making every citizen think that he can throw the refuse into the streets, he can urinate any where ,he can defecate any where No municipality or corporation is fully utilizing these acts. Very few houses will have mosquito nets tied to the outlet pipes of their septic tanks Very few towns will be there without aquatic plants promoting mosquito breeding in their sewage ponds .
Slide 30 - Mosquito resistance Every creature, whether tiny or huge, wants to survive in spite of odd situation. so also mosquito. Mosquito has become addicted to DDT and other insecticides. DDT spraying for years together , has make mosquito resistant.
Slide 31 - Changed bionomics of the vector Mosquito has become wise It changed its breeding places, biting habits It is trying his best to maneuver the man’s onslaught
Slide 32 - Who is to be blamed?
Slide 33 - WHO IS TO BE BLAMED? As long as the mosquito breeding is facilitated by man, mosquitoes will be there and mosquito-borne diseases will be there. So, who is to be blamed? Man or Mosquito? Obviously man Whom we have to tackle Primarily? Man or mosquito? Of course, man should be corrected first.
Slide 34 - Why man is perpetuating mosquito menace? Ignorance due to Illiteracy in developing countries Once , as Mass Media and Education Officer, I was showing to the people in a village, a film on mosquito control. After seeing a highly magnified female anopheles mosquito, one of the villagers is thanking the god for not having such a huge size mosquitoes in his village.
Slide 35 - Fellow Travelers in life I think, A.G.Gardener felt happy and enjoyed his train journey with his fellow traveler, a mosquito The same patronization of mosquitoes by man may be the reason for increasing numbers of mosquitoes. We have pet mosquitoes, like pet dogs, pet cats etc.
Slide 36 - Who is wise man or mosquito? Man unwise foolishly helping its propagation by allowing its breeding and getting the brunt. Man knows that it is his enemy. But he is helping it. Is he wise? Whereas mosquito is wisely changing its bionomics and developing insecticidal resistance
Slide 37 - What should be our next steps of action?
Slide 38 - Individual responsibility Mosquito is becoming ubiquitous and its presence is associated with man’s life style Unless man himself changes his behavior and becomes mosquito conscious and stops creating breeding places for mosquitoes, no government can eliminate mosquito. It is next to impossibility.
Slide 39 - Active Community participation Mosquito net usage Septic tank latrines with outlet pipes tied with nylon mesh to prevent the entry of mosquitoes Safe disposal of solid and liquid wastes and dust bin usage Health education regarding mosquito borne diseases They should be regular features of every community. It should be insisted upon illiterate and literate people in the interest of nation.
Slide 40 - Environmental control Environment should be made unfavorable to mosquitoes by Not allowing waste water to accumulate keeping the residential environment clean and tidy Not keeping broken and empty buckets Not throwing refuse into the streets Proper maintenance of the irrigation canals Keeping the cattle sheds and pet homes clean We are trying insecticides, guppy fish since years and obtaining temporary benefits only. Better intervention will be environmental sanitation.
Slide 41 - Underground drainage It is the answer for not only eliminating mosquitoes but also most of the feco- oral diseases Though expensive, it very cost effective when the losses due to mosquito borne diseases are considered. It also solves the problem of diseases due to feco- oral transmission .
Slide 42 - Strict enforcement of legislation for wastes disposal This is very essential for a country like India, where half of its population are illiterates and poor. To make the people use bed nets, to make them dispose wastes safely by septic tanks ,strict enforcement of legislation is essential.
Slide 43 - Key for mosquito control is with the people Vector breeding is mostly manmade. Unless man develops mosquito consciousness, this problem cannot be solved. No developing country with its limited resources can eliminate mosquitoes and mosquito borne diseases ,unless its government seriously thinks about bringing about behavioral change by creating mosquito consciousness in its people.