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MMR-Measles Mumps and Rubella PowerPoint Presentation

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Slide 1 - MMRMeasles, Mumps &RubellaBy DR.I.SELVARAJB. Sc., M.D., D.P.H., D.I.H., PGCH&FW( NIHFW, New Delhi)Indian Railways Medical Service (Rtd)Assistant Professor
Slide 2 - This PowerPoint presentation will be an additional resources for Para medical people Public health nurses, MBBS students and MD Post graduate students around the world. This droplet infections has to be eradicated. As we are having effective vaccine against this infections, no carriers & no animal reservoir and paramedical people can easily identify the signs & symptoms The public health institution has to give more importance for this infectious diseases to control My best wishes to the Supercourse team Dr.I.Selvaraj Indian railways Medical service (Rtd)
Slide 3 - Measles(English Measles)
Slide 4 - Agent Agent- RNA virus ( Paramyxo virus family, genus Morbillivirus ) Source of infection-cases of measles, but not carriers. No animal reservoir Infective material- Nasal secretion ,Respiratory tract &Throat Communicability- Highly infectious during prodromal period and at the time of eruption. Secondary attack rate- > 80%
Slide 5 - Host factors Age- 6 months to 3 years even up to 10 years Incidence equal in both sexes Immunity – life long immunity Malnourished children are susceptible
Slide 6 - Environmental factor Winter season, over crowding Transmission – Droplet infection 4 days before and 4 days after rash Incubation period- 7 days
Slide 7 - Courtesy : Adapted from Mims et al. Medical Microbiology, 1993, Mosby
Slide 8 - Clinical features Prodromal stage Eruptive stage Post-measles stage
Slide 9 - Clinical features 3 Cs (Cough, Coryza & Conjunctivitis) Koplik spots Four days fever (400c) Generalized, maculopapular,erythematous  rash.
Slide 10 - Courtesy : This media comes from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Image Library (PHIL), with identification number #3168
Slide 11 - KOPLIK SPOT Source: http://phil.cdc.gov/PHIL_Images/20040908/4f54ee8f0e5f49f58aaa30c1bc6413ba/6111_lores.jpg
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Slide 13 - Complication Diarrhea, Pneumonia Otitis media Convulsions, SSPE (sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis)
Slide 14 - WHO strategy for control and prevention of Measles 1) Catch up 2) Keep up 3) Follow up
Slide 15 - Mumps The name comes from the British word "to mump", that is grimace or grin. The appearance of the patient as a result of parotid gland swelling seems to be in grin
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Slide 17 - Agent Myxovirus parotidis –RNA virus Source of infection – Respiratory, milk Period of communicability – 4-6 days of onset of symptoms Secondary attack rate – 86%
Slide 18 - Age & sex 5-15 yrs and girls common Immunity - life long Environmental factor – winter and spring season favors Mode of transmission – droplet I.P - 2 to 3 weeks
Slide 19 - Clinical features Parotid swelling Ovaritis Pancreatitis Ear ache Orchitis
Slide 20 - Courtesy : Adapted from Mims et al. Medical Microbiology, 1993, Mosby
Slide 21 - Complications Orchitis Epididymitis Oophoiritis Spontaneous abortion Sensori neural hearing loss, (uni- or bilateral). Mild form of meningitis Encephalitis
Slide 22 - Rubella (German measles)
Slide 23 - The name rubella is derived from a Latin term meaning "little red."  Rubella is sometime called German Measles or 3-day Measles. The synonym "3-day measles" derives from the typical course of rubella exanthema that starts initially on the face and neck and spreads centrifugally to the trunk and extremities within 24 hours. It then begins to fade on the face on the second day and disappears throughout the body by the end of the third day. It is a generally mild disease caused by the rubella virus.
Slide 24 - Agent – RNA virus (Togo virus family), Genus Rubivirus.  Source of infection – Respiratory secretion Host -3-10 yrs Immunity –life long Environmental factors –winter and spring season Transmission – droplet, vertical transmission I.P – 2-3 weeks average 18 days
Slide 25 - Eye pain on lateral and upward eye movement (a particularly troublesome complaint) Conjunctivitis Sore throat Headache General body aches Low-grade fever Chills Anorexia Nausea Tender lymphadenopathy (particularly posterior auricular and suboccipital lymph nodes) Forchheimer sign (an enanthem observed in 20% of patients with rubella during the prodromal period; can be present in some patients during the initial phase of the exanthem; consists of pinpoint or larger petechiae that usually occur on the soft palate)
Slide 26 - Temperature Fever is usually not higher than 38.5°C (101.5°F). Lymph nodes Enlarged posterior auricular and suboccipital lymph nodes are usually found on physical examination. Mouth The Forchheimer sign may still be present on the soft palate.
Slide 27 - Image in a 4-year-old girl with a 4-day history of low-grade fever, symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, and rash. Courtesy of Pamela L. Dyne, MD.
Slide 28 - 0–28 days before conception - 43% chance 0–12 weeks after conception - 51% chance 13–26 weeks after conception - 23% chance  Infants are not generally affected if rubella is contracted during the third trimester
Slide 29 - Photo source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Slide 31 - Salt and pepper retinopathy Content Providers(s): CDC Creation Date: 1976 Courtesy http://phil.cdc.gov/phil_images/20030724/28/PHIL_4284_lores.jpg http://www.kellogg.umich.edu/theeyeshaveit/congenital/retinopathy.html Courtesy: Jonathan Trobe, M.D. - University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center
Slide 32 - Sensorineural hearing loss – 58% Ocular abnormalities including cataract, infantile glaucoma, Micro ophthalmia and pigmentary retinopathy occur in approximately 43%  Congenital heart disease including patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and pulmonary artery stenosis - 50%
Slide 33 - Measles vaccine Live attenuated measles virus (Edmonston-zagreb strain) Propagated on human diploid cell (MRC-5) 0.5 ml of vaccine Not less than 1000 CCID50 of measles virus 2.5% of gelatin 5% of sorbitol as stabilizers 0.5 ml of sterile water Dose – 0.5 ml Route of administration: Sub-cutaneously 3 to 5 weeks antibody level – 200mLU/ml
Slide 34 - Mumps Vaccine 10 strains of the mumps virus are in use throughout the world for the preparation of live attenuated vaccine. Jeryl Lynn strain which was named after the child from whom the virus was isolated. Leningrad-3 strain Urabe strain  Hoshino, Torii and NKM - 46 strains  L-Zagreb
Slide 35 - MMR Vaccine Live attenuated strains of Edmonston-Zagreb Measles virus propagated on human diploid cell culture, L-Zagreb Mumps virus propagated on chick embryo fibroblast cells Wistar RA 27/3 Rubella virus propagated on human diploid cell culture.
Slide 36 - The reconstituted vaccine contains, in single dose of 0.5 ml. not less than 1000 CCID50 of Measles virus 5000 CCID50 of Mumps virus 1000 CCID50 of Rubella virus. Diluent : Sterile water for injection. The vaccine meets the requirements of USP and WHO when tested by the methods outlined in USP and WHO, TRS 840 (1994).
Slide 37 - For active immunization in children of 12 months to 12 years of age against Measles, Mumps and Rubella infections –MMR Vaccine to be given For immunisation of susceptible non pregnant, adolescent and adult females, we have to use Rubella Vaccine) Measles vaccine has to be given at 9 months, If Measles vaccine is given ,a 3 months gap is advisable to give MMR vaccine MMR vaccine may be given between 12-15 months of age. If Measles vaccine was missed , MMR dose replaces it, when given at or after 12 months.
Slide 38 - The vaccine should be reconstituted with the diluent supplied (Sterile water for injection) using a sterile Auto disabled syringe with needle. After reconstitution the vaccine should be used immediately. A single dose of 0.5 ml should be administered by deep subcutaneous injection into the upper arm. If the vaccine is not used immediately then it should be stored in the dark at 2° - 8°C for no longer than 8 hours.
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Slide 40 - Murray et al., Microbiology 5th Ed., Chapters 56, 59, 63 (pp. 645-648) Mims et al. Medical Microbiology, 1993 K. Park 21st edition Text book of community medicine by Sundarlal, Adarsh, Pankaj