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Slide 1 - CSE 3302 Programming Languages Chengkai Li Fall 2007 Functional Programming Language (Introduction and Scheme) Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 1 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008
Slide 2 - Disclaimer Many of the slides are based on “Introduction to Functional Programming” by Graham Hutton, lecture notes from Oscar Nierstrasz, and lecture notes of Kenneth C. Louden. Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 2
Slide 3 - Resources Textbook: Chapter 11 Tutorial: The Scheme Programming Language http://www.scheme.com/tspl3/ (Chapter 1-2) Yet Another Haskell Tutorial http://www.cs.utah.edu/~hal/htut (Chapter 1-4, 7) Implementation: DrScheme http://www.drscheme.org/ Hugs http://www.haskell.org/hugs/ (download WinHugs) (Optional) Further reading: Reference manual: Haskell 98 Report http://haskell.org/haskellwiki/Definition A Gentle Introduction to Haskell 98 http://www.haskell.org/tutorial/ Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 3
Slide 4 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 4.4 History
Slide 5 - 5 Functional Programming Functional programming is a style of programming: Imperative Programming: Program = Data + Algorithms OO Programming: Program = Object. message (object) Functional Programming: Program = Functions Functions Computation is done by application of functions Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008
Slide 6 - 6 Functional Programming Languages A functional language supports and advocates for the style of FP. Important Features: Everything is function (input->function->output) No variables or assignments ( only constant values, arguments, and returned values. Thus no notion of state, memory location) No loops (only recursive functions) No side-effect (Referential Transparency): the value of a function depends only on the values of its parameters. Evaluating a function with the same parameters gets the same results. There is no state. Evaluation order or execution path don’t matter. (random() and getchar() are not referentially transparent.) Functions are first-class values: functions are values, can be parameters and return values, can be composed. Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008
Slide 7 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 7 We can use functional programming in imperative languages Imperative style int sumto(int n){ int i, sum = 0; for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) sum += i; return sum;} Functional style: int sumto(int n){ if (n <= 0) return 0; else return sumto(n-1) + n;}
Slide 8 - Why does it matter, anyway? The advantages of functional programming languages: Simple semantics, concise, flexible ``No’’ side effect Less bugs It does have drawbacks: Execution efficiency More abstract and mathematical, thus more difficult to learn and use. Even if we don’t use FP languages: Features of recursion and higher-order functions have gotten into most programming languages. Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 8
Slide 9 - Functional Programming Languages in Use Popular in prototyping, mathematical proof systems, AI and logic applications, research and education. Scheme: Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (SGML stylesheets) GIMP Guile (GNU’s official scripting language) Emacs Haskell Linspire (commerical Debian-based Linux distribution) Xmonad (X Window Manager) XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 9
Slide 10 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 10 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 Scheme
Slide 11 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 11 Scheme: Lisp dialect Syntax (slightly simplified): expression  atom | list atom  number | string | identifier | character | boolean list  '(' expression-sequence ')' expression-sequence  expression expression-sequence | expression Everything is an expression: programs, data, … Thus programs are executed by evaluating expressions. Only 2 basic kinds of expressions: atoms: unstructured lists: the only structure (a slight simplification).
Slide 12 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 12 Expressions 42 —a number "hello" —a string #T —the Boolean value "true" #\a —the character 'a' (2.1 2.2 3.1) —a list of numbers hello —a identifier (+ 2 3) —a list (identifier "+" and two numbers) ( (+ 2 3) (/ 6 2)) —a list (identifier "*" and two lists)
Slide 13 - Evaluation of Expressions Programs are executed by evaluating expressions. Thus semantics are defined by evaluation rules of expressions. Evaluation Rules: number | string: evaluate to itself Identifier: looked up in the environment, i.e., dynamically maintained symbol table List: recursively evaluate the elements (more details in following slides) Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 13
Slide 14 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 14 Eager Evaluation A list is evaluated by recursively evaluating each element: unspecified order first element must evaluate to a function. This function is then applied to the evaluated values of the rest of the list. (prefix form). Most expressions use applicative order evaluation (eager evaluation): subexpressions are first evaluated, then the expression is evaluated. (correspondingly in imperative language: arguments are evaluated at a call site before they are passed to the called function.) E.g. 3 + 4  5 (+ 3 ( 4 5)) (a == b)&&(a != 0) (and (= a b) (not (= a 0))) gcd(10,35) (gcd 10 35)
Slide 15 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 15 Lazy Evaluation: Special Forms if function (if a b c): a is always evaluated Either b or c (but not both) is evaluated and returned as result. c is optional. (if a is false and c is missing, the value of the expression is undefined.) e.g., (if (= a 0) 0 (/ 1 a)) cond : (cond (e1 v1) (e2 v2) ... (else vn)) The (ei vi) are considered in order ei is evaluated. If it is true, vi is then evaluated, and the value is the result of the cond expression. If no ei is evaluated to true, vn is then evaluated, and the value is the result of the cond expression. If no ei is evaluated to true, and vn is missing, the value of the expression is undefined. (cond ((= a 0) 0) ((= a 1) 1) (else (/ 1 a)))
Slide 16 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 16 Lazy Evaluation: Special Forms define function: declare identifiers for constants and function, and thus put them into symbol table. (define a b): define a name(define (a p1 p2 …) b1 b2 …): define a function a with parameters p1 p2 …. the first expression after define is never evaluated. e.g., define x (+ 2 3) (define (gcd u v) (if (= v 0) u (gcd v (remainder u v))))
Slide 17 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 17 Lazy Evaluation: Special Forms Quote, or ' for short, has as its whole purpose to not evaluate its argument:(quote (2 3 4)) or '(2 3 4) returns just (2 3 4). (we need a list of numbers as a data structure) eval function: get evaluation back(eval '(+ 2 3)) returns 5
Slide 18 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 18 Other Special Forms let function: create a binding list (a list of name-value assocations), then evaluate an expression (based on the values of the names) (let ((n1 e1) (n2 e2) …) v1 v2 …) e.g., (let ((a 2) (b 3)) (+ a b)) Is this assignment?
Slide 19 - Lists List Only data structure Used to construct other data structures. Thus we must have functions to manipulate lists. cons: construct a list (1 2 3) = (cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 '()))) (1 2 3) = (cons 1 '(2 3)) car: the first element (head), which is an expression (car '(1 2 3)) = 1 cdr:the tail, which is a list (cdr '(1 2 3)) = (2 3) Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 19
Slide 20 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 20 Data structures (define L '((1 2) 3 (4 (5 6)))) (car (car L)) (cdr (car L)) (car (car (cdr (cdr L)))) Note: car(car = caar cdr(car = cdar car(car(cdr(cdr = caaddr
Slide 21 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 21 Box diagrams a List = (head expression, tail list) L = ((1 2) 3 (4 (5 6))) looks as follows in memory
Slide 22 - Other list manipulation operations:based on car, cdr, cons (define (append L M) (if (null? L) M (cons (car L) (append (cdr L) M)) ) ) (define (reverse L) (if (null? L) M (append (reverse (cdr L)) (list (car L))) ) ) Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 22
Slide 23 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 23 Lambda expressions/function values A function can be created dynamically using a lambda expression, which returns a value that is a function:(lambda (x) (* x x)) The syntax of a lambda expression:(lambda list-of-parameters exp1 exp2 …) Indeed, the "function" form of define is just syntactic sugar for a lambda:(define (f x) (* x x))is equivalent to:(define f (lambda (x) (* x x)))
Slide 24 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 24 Function values as data The result of a lambda can be manipulated as ordinary data: > ((lambda (x) (* x x)) 5) 25 > (define (add-x x) (lambda(y)(+ x y))) > (define add-2 (add-x 2)) > (add-2 15) 17
Slide 25 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 25 Higher-order functions higher-order function: a function that returns a function as its value or takes a function as a parameter or both E.g.: add-x compose (next slide)
Slide 26 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 26 Higher-order functions (define (compose f g) (lambda (x) (f (g x)))) (define (map f L) (if (null? L) L (cons (f (car L))(map f (cdr L))))) (define (filter p L) (cond ((null? L) L) ((p (car L)) (cons (car L) (filter p (cdr L)))) (else (filter p (cdr L)))))
Slide 27 - Lecture 17 – Functional Programming, Spring 2008 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington ©Chengkai Li, 2008 27 let expressions as lambdas: A let expression is really just a lambda applied immediately:(let ((x 2) (y 3)) (+ x y))is the same as((lambda (x y) (+ x y)) 2 3) This is why the following let expression is an error if we want x = 2 throughout:(let ((x 2) (y (+ x 1))) (+ x y)) Nested let (lexical scoping) (let ((x 2)) (let ((y (+ x 1))) (+ x y)))