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Slide 1 - Breast Cancer By Eric Lee & Rikki Haberny
Slide 2 - Overview What is breast cancer? What are some Causes and risks? What are the Symptoms? How about some Epidemiology? What’s the deal with BRCA1 and BRCA2? Are there Early Detection and Treatments? Do I have a check list I can follow? Conclusion!
Slide 3 - What is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer primarily effects women but about 1 percent of all cases effect men Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women next to lung cancer One out of nine women in the US will develop breast cancer in their lifetime One out of twenty in 1960 An abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth arising in the breast tissue
Slide 4 - The breast The breasts are made of fat, glands, and connective (fibrous) tissue The breast has several lobes, which are divided into lobules and end in the milk glands Tiny ducts run from the many tiny glands, connect together, and end in the nipple
Slide 5 - The breast These ducts are where 78% of breast cancers occur. This is known as infiltrating ductal cancer Cancer developing in the lobules is termed infiltrating lobular cancer. About 10-15% of breast cancers are of this type. Another type of breast cancer is inflammatory breast cancer (Often Misdiagnosed and dangerous)
Slide 6 - Inflammatory Breast Cancer Rare, serious, aggressive form of breast cancer Looks red (erythema), feels warm Thickening of skin Ridges, welts and hives may be observed Skin may look wrinkled Sometimes misdiagnosed as infection
Slide 7 - Personal or family history Not having children Having first child after age 30 Radiation therapy to chest/upper body Overweight or obese Age Late menopause Diets high in saturated fat Your sex Estrogen replacement therapy Causes and Risks
Slide 8 - Causes and Risks Although breast cancer can occur at any age the risk factor increases the older one gets. The average woman at age 30 has 1 chance in 280 of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years This chance increases to 1 in 70 for a woman aged 40 By age 50 the chances are1 in 40 A 60-year-old woman has a 1 in 30 chance of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years.
Slide 9 - Causes and Risks Shields Being older at first menstration and having an earlier menopause lowers risk Having children before the age of 30 helps. Having no children increases risk. Physically active women may have a lower risk. Preemptive mastectomy
Slide 10 - Symptoms Early breast cancer has little or no symptoms. It is not painful. Breast discharge, especially if only from one breast or bloody Sunken nipple, Though a common variant of normal nipples a new development should cause concern Redness, changes in texture, and puckering. Usually caused by skin disease but sometimes can be associated with breast cancer. Lumps on or around breast. Most lumps are not cancerous Other lumps around the under arm or collarbone which don’t go away Loss of smell?
Slide 11 - Metastasis The most common place for breast cancer to metastasize is into the lymph nodes under the arm or above the collarbone on the same side as the cancer. Brain Bones Liver
Slide 12 - Epidemiology An estimated 211,240 new cases of breast cancer are expected to occur in the United states during 2005. The rate of new cases have increased since 1980 but rates have slowed down since the 1990’s. About 1690 new cases of breast cancer are expected in men.
Slide 13 - Epidemiology An estimated 40,870 deaths (40,410 women, 460 men) are anticipated from breast cancer in 2005. Mortality rates declined 1.4% per year during 1989-1995 and by 3.2% afterwards. Largest decrease was in younger women for both Caucasians and African Americans.
Slide 14 - Epidemiology The 5 year survival rate for localized breast cancer has increased from 72% in the 1940’s to 97 percent today. Regionally spread cancer drops the rate to 78% Distant metastases drops the survival rate even lower to 23%
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Slide 17 - BRCA1/BRCA2 BRCA1 discovered in 1994 BRCA2 discovered in 1995 5-10% of all breast cancer cases are linked to this gene. Having a single copy of either mutated gene appears to confer about an 80% chance of developing breast cancer.
Slide 18 - BRCA1/BRCA2 BRCA1 is located on chromosome 17 BRCA2 is located on Chromosome 13 When found, many researchers thought it would shed light on breast cancer in those patients who did not have the mutated gene.
Slide 19 - What does BRCA1&BRCA2 do? Both genes help mediate damage to cell’s DNA. Exactly how though is still being studied. These genes are tentatively linked to an increased risk for also pancreatic, prostate, and ovarian cancer. Puzzle… Why is breast tissue so susceptible?
Slide 20 - BRCA1/BRCA2 A possible explanation is estrogen. Studies on mice without BRCA but treated with excess estrogen were found to over stimulate genes and proteins in a hormonal activating pathway. Further testing will show whether it affects tumor formation. But why mostly women and not many men? Men have estrogen too!!!
Slide 21 - BRCA1/BRCA2 The two X deal During embryonic development one chromosome is randomly shut down. No double dose of X Cells with mutated BRCA1 have been found to prevent fully shutting down the second X chromosome.
Slide 22 - BRCA1/BRCA2 In men?? Study shows that BRCA2 mainly causes increase of risk 7% risk of breast cancer by age 80 Association between BRCA1 and MBC is less clear Female first-degree relatives of MBC cases are at increased risk of breast cancer
Slide 23 - BRCA1/BRCA2 Women who have the BRCA1 gene tend to develop breast cancer at an early age Possible BRCA carriers are females whose mother and grandmother have had breast cancer Testing for these genes is expensive and frequently not covered by insurance Women who test positive may have trouble getting or keeping health insurance.
Slide 24 - Early detection Early detection is the key! Self/Doctor examinations Mammography Ultrasound MRI Biopsy Self VS Mammography VS Ultrasound VS MRI VS Biopsy
Slide 25 - Early detection Breast self/doctor examination includes visual inspection and careful feeling of the breasts, the armpits, and the areas around the collarbone. Looking for lumps or abnormalities around the breast. Most lumps are NOT cancerous Best time for examination is immediately after the monthly period Not 100% accurate
Slide 26 - Early detection Mammography X-ray picture of the breast taken from several angles by compressing the breast horizontally, diagonally, and sometimes vertically. Not 100% accurate
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Slide 28 - Mammography images
Slide 29 - Early detection Ultrasound Usually done in addition to the mammogram. Shows whether a mass is filled with fluid or solid. Cancers are solid. Not 100% accurate
Slide 30 - Early detection MRI Magnetic resonance imaging. Differentiates diseased or dying tissue from normal healthy tissue Almost 100% accurate
Slide 31 - Early detection Biopsy take a very small piece of tissue from the body for examination and testing. examined by a pathologist 100% accurate
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Slide 33 - Early detection Self/doctor exam VS Mammography VS Ultrasound VS MRI VS Biopsy
Slide 34 - Early detection Self/doctor exams usually only feel lumps after tumor is about 1 inch diameter Mammography & ultrasound detect tumors at about ¼ inch MRI uses cell contrast for excellent detection but costs 8-20 times more then standard mammography 100% assurance on any suspicious lumps can only be obtained by a biopsy
Slide 35 - Which image looks more distinct?
Slide 36 - Early detection The stages 0-IV Stage 0 is noninvasive breast cancer, that is, carcinoma in situ with no affected lymph nodes or metastasis. This is the most favorable stage to find breast cancer. Stage I is breast cancer that is less than three quarters of an inch in diameter and has not spread from the breast. Stage II is breast cancer that is fairly small in size but has spread to lymph nodes in the armpit OR cancer that is somewhat larger but has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Slide 37 - Early detection The stages 0-IV Stage III is breast cancer of a larger size (greater than 2 inches in diameter), with greater lymph node involvement, or of the inflammatory type. Spreading to other areas around the breast. Stage IV is metastatic breast cancer: a tumor of any size or type that has metastasized to another part of the body (ex. bones, lungs, liver, brain). This is the least favorable stage to find breast cancer.
Slide 38 - Treatment Radiation Chemotherapy Vaccines Surgery Hormonal therapy Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is the most commonly prescribed hormone treatment.
Slide 39 - Therapeutic Vaccines Treat existing cancers Under development Melanoma, lung, ovarian, prostate tumors “Kick-start” immune system Prevent further growth of existing cancers Block recurrence of treated cancers Kill cancer cells not destroyed by previous treatment
Slide 40 - HER-2/neu Growth-stimulating protein Normal cells express a small amount on their plasma membranes On surface of breast cancer cells Sends messages from cell to “growth factors” outside cell Overabundant on surface of cancer cells in 30% of women with breast cancer
Slide 41 - HER-2/neu Vaccine Targets HER-2/neu protein Made from small protein pieces likely to trigger an immune response Contains a drug that helps increase white blood cell counts Monthly shots for six months No serious side effects
Slide 42 - Telomerase Peptide Enzyme Found in over 90% of breast cancer tumors Current vaccine research Study measures tumor cell shrinkage in patients after immune response to an antigen Generate white blood cell attack
Slide 43 - Telomerase Peptide Vaccine Antigen/adjuvant vaccine Uses specific peptide to mobilize the immune system Administered over seven months Produced immune response in breast and prostate cancer patients Temporary tumor regression Little toxicity
Slide 44 - Theratope Vaccine Merck and Biomira Used for metastatic breast cancer Stimulates patient’s immune response to tumor STn marker Cancer associated carbohydrate antigen Vaccine contains synthetic form Phase III tests inconclusive Small subset showed improvement in survival
Slide 45 - Herceptin Type of biologic therapy Breast cancer treatment drug Monoclonal antibody therapy Blocks HER-2/neu Effective in metastatic HER-2/neu positive breast cancer Little effect with HER-2/neu negative breast cancer
Slide 46 - Surgery Lumpectomy removal of the cancerous tissue and a surrounding area of normal tissue Simple mastectomy removes the entire breast but no other structures Modified radical mastectomy removes the breast and the underarm lymph nodes
Slide 47 - Surgery Radical mastectomy removal of the breast and the underlying chest wall muscles, as well as the underarm contents. This surgery is no longer done because current therapies are less disfiguring and have fewer complications.
Slide 48 -  Lumpectomy Simple Mastectomy   Modified Radical Radical 
Slide 49 - Treatment BRCA1/BRCA2? No “treatment” Mastectomy cuts risk by 90% Hysterectomy slashes another 50% Tamoxifen anti-estrogen drug Lowers risk of diagnosis of benign tumors Influenced by estrogen Reduces risk about 28% May reduce need for biopsies in high-risk women Intervenes before invasive cancer begins
Slide 50 - The checklist Age 20-39 Monthly self breast exam Yearly breast exam by doctor Mammogram every 2-3 years Age 40+ Monthly self breast exam Breast exam by doctor every 6 month Mammogram once a year Skin exam yearly
Slide 51 - Conclusion The biggest risks for breast cancer are age, sex, and genetics Second highest cancer killer in women Rates of new cases have slowed BRCA1/BRCA2 only effect 5% of cases Several early detection techniques and devices Vaccines show promise but are not a solution Surgery helps prevent reoccurrence.
Slide 52 - References BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of male breast cancerBasham VM, Lipscombe JM, Ward JM, Gayther SA, Ponder BAJ, Easton DF, Pharoah PDPBreast Cancer Res 2002, 4:R2 (21 November 2001) Mouse models for BRCA1-associated breast cancerR-H Wang, W Li, X Xu and C DengNational Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USAfrom 24th Congress of the International Association for Breast Cancer Research. Advances in human breast cancer research: preclinical modelsSacramento, USA, 1-5 November 2003 Breast Cancer Res 2003 5(Suppl 1):3 http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/info/tamoxifen.htm Dewitt Publishing. Breast Cancer: emerging risk factors. New York Times 2003 American Cancer Society, Cancer facts and figures. 2003 Jennifer Couzin. The twists and turns in BRCA’s pathway. Science VOL 302 October 24, 2003 DGR Evans, M Bulman, K Young, D Gokhale, F lalloo. Sensitivity of BRCA1/2 Mutation testing in 466 breast/ovarian cancer families. Online mutation report. www.jmedgenet.com http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/13615-1.asp
Slide 53 - References Campiglio. M, S. Menard, S. M. Pupa, and E. Tagliabue. 2003. Biologic and therapeutic role of HER2 in cancer. Oncogene. 22(42): 6570-6578. Love, R. R. 2002. Breast Cancer Prevention. The Oncologist. 7(2): 100-102. “Phase I Clinical Trial of Breast Cancer Vaccine.” www.medicalnewstoday.com American Cancer Society www.cancer.org Herceptin Drug Information www.herceptin.com National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations www.nabco.org National Breast Cancer Coalition www.natlbcc.org National Breast Cancer Foundation www.nationalbreastcancer.org National Cancer Institute http://cancer.gov OncoLink www.oncolink.upenn.edu