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Slide 1 - A Future Oriented Approach to China-Japan Relations For A talk at Sagamore Institute, 26 March 2013 Shunji Cui Fulbright Scholar-in-Residence, 2012-13 Marian University
Slide 2 - A Future Oriented Approach to China-Japan Relations The Current State of China-Japan Relations – Tensions over East China Sea Disputes Why It Has Proved to be So Difficult? ‘The Drums of War’ or Can it be Avoided? How do China and Japan Move towards a Future Oriented Direction?
Slide 3 - ppt slide no 3 content not found
Slide 4 - Fishing Platform/Pinnacle Islands 钓鱼台列屿 / 尖閣列島 Diaoyu/Senkaku (D/S) Islands A chain of tiny 8 islands 5 uninhabitable islands, 3 barren rocks All are volcanic formations from the Neocene age Largest Island 钓鱼台Diaoyutai (S) 鱼钓岛Uotsurisima(J) surface area: 3.5 skm.
Slide 5 - Geographical Location 120 nautical miles northeast of Taiwan 200 nm east of PRC 200 nm southwest of Naha, Okinawa
Slide 6 - Territorial Waters– 12nm The sovereign territory of the state But foreign ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it Exclusive Economic Zone—200nm Control of all economic resources, including fishing, mining, oil exploration, and any pollution of those resources. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,1982
Slide 7 - D/S Island Disputes: Downward Spirals? 2012-9-11: Japan’s “nationalization” of 3 of the Islands Followed by Chinese maritime surveillance ships entering into disputed waters – even within 12nm Small aircraft of China’s State Oceanic Bureau flew into airspace over the D/S Japan deploying Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) Global Times (China) argued: “we need to prepare for the worst”, if Japan not be deterred. Situation worse than 2005  Possible War?
Slide 8 - 2012 over Islands row
Slide 9 - Why It Has Proved to be So Difficult? Conflictual Claims Political & Emotional
Slide 10 - Japan’s Claim: I 1885~: 10-y survey, terra nullius (land without owner) 1895-1-14: Meiji Cabinet’s decision to incorporate the islands into Japanese territory  actual control. 1896-4-1: Placed under the administration of Ishigaki, Yaeyama District, Okinawa Prefecture 1895-4-17: Signing the Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895-5: the Treaty came to effect.
Slide 11 - Japan's Claim: After WWII 1951: The San Francisco Treaty (US-J) Japan renounced claims to a number of territories and islands including Taiwan the Nansei Shoto (Nansei islands) came under US trusteeship 1971: the Okinawa reversion deal Nansei Shoto returned to Japan The islands are under Japan’s control No disputes over the Islands China is just for oil
Slide 12 - China’s Claim: Historical 1 Not terra nullius , but have been part of its territory since ancient times. Historical Records: 1430, 顺风相送(Fair winds for escort), earliest, a non-official Chinese navigational record. 1534, 使琉球录, earliest official record of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū. Those islands served as important fishing grounds administered by the province of Taiwan.
Slide 13 - China’s Claim: Historical 2 1874: Japan took Ryukyu Islands Japan took Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa) from China by force when Chinese Qing Dynasty was involved in several wars with other foreign countries However, the Diaoyu Islands still remained under the administration of Taiwan, a part of China. 1895: The Treaty of Shimonoseki After being defeated by Japan in the Sino-Japan War (1894-95), China ceded Taiwan to Japan under the Shimonoseki Treaty. As a part of Taiwan, the Diaoyutai Islands belonged to Japan at that time.
Slide 14 - China’s Claim: after WWII Cairo Declaration (1943) & Potsdam Proclamation (1945) Taiwan was returned to China at the end of World War II The Japanese government accepted the terms that stated in these documents "...that all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria and Formosa(Taiwan) shall be restored to the Republic of China.” Thus, deny the effects of 1951 San Francisco Treaty (US-J).
Slide 15 - Difficulty II: Sovereignty and Beyond Japan: Actual Control – No sovereign Issue Concern of Okinawa China’s Rise, perceived assertiveness, and threat China: Emotional – reminding its weakness and humiliation, and Historical injustice in modern history. Vulnerable to Nationalist sentiments US Asian Policy
Slide 16 - Shared Interests in Deescalating Their Relations Economic Impacts (by the end of 2012): Nissan’s sales in China have fallen 5.3 % to 1.18 million units, Toyota’s by 4.9 % to 840,000 units, Japanese direct investment in China fell by almost a third – (ASEAN looking for opportunity) Tourism –(2012-9-21) ANA: nearly 4,000 Japanese canceled their plans to visit China. The Japanese National Tourist Association: 20% drop in numbers visiting Japan from China
Slide 17 - Japanese car sales  in China in 2012 Source: China Daily 2013-1-8
Slide 18 - Shared Willingness and Efforts Natsuo Yamaguchi’s meeting with Xi Jinping (in Beijing, 2013-1). The eighth Tokyo-Beijing Forum (in Tokyo, July 2, 2012). Dialogue on D/S Island disputes (in HZ, 2012-10) The International Politics of East Asia and the East China Sea (in Hangzhou, China, December 14-15, 2012) To Japan-China Dialogue: Toward a Future Oriented Japan-China Relationship (in Tokyo, Jnuary 23-24, 2013). Strong calling for ‘wisdom’ in settling territorial disputes
Slide 19 - What Can be Done for A Future Oriented Relations? Managing the Disputes Managing the Great Power Relations Enhancing People-to-People Relations
Slide 20 - 1. Managing the Disputes Understand/Accept the New Reality China: Japan’s nationalization of Islands Japan: existing disputes over sovereignty Shelving the dispute & Searching for joint cooperation Fishing; Energy No entry into disputed area Set up ‘hot lines’ to prepare for contingency Establish UN Environmental Protection Areas
Slide 21 - ‘Japan and China have struck a deal for the joint development of a gas field in the East China Sea, resolving a protracted bilateral dispute.’ BBC,  18 June 2008 China: Chunxiao Gas Field
Slide 22 - 2. Managing the Great Power Relations China: Clear vision of regional/global governance Stronger demonstration of its Peaceful rise Japan: Accepting China’s rise US Policy of pivot Asia: accommodating China
Slide 23 - 3. Enhancing People-to-People Relations China-Japan: move beyond history – forward looking Reconciliation Kim Dae-jung examples Constructing Friendly Relations Cross-Strait Example Identity among people in Taiwan
Slide 24 - Thank You !!!