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Slide 1 - HISTORY OF VALENTINE DAY Every February, across the country, candy, flowers, and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who is this mysterious saint and why do we celebrate this holiday? МОУ Гимназия.г.Обнинск Преподаватель английского Откидач Е.Я.
Slide 2 - So, who was Saint Valentine? Today, the Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named Valentine or Valentinus, all of whom were martyred. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with families, he outlawed marriage for young men -- his crop of potential soldiers. Valentine continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentine's actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. Other stories suggest that Valentine may have been killed for attempting to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons where they were often beaten and tortured.
Slide 3 - According to one legend, Valentine actually sent the first 'valentine' greeting himself. While in prison, it is believed that Valentine fell in love with a young girl -- who may have been his jailor's daughter -- who visited him during his confinement. Before his death he wrote her a letter, which he signed 'From your Valentine,' an expression that is still in use today. Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is murky, the stories show him as a sympathetic, heroic, and, most importantly, romantic figure. It's no surprise that by the Middle Ages, Valentine was one of the most popular saints in England and France.
Slide 4 - Who was Valentine? Why was he killed? Who sent the first Valentine greeting? Why? How do the stories show Valentine?
Slide 5 - Other Valentine Traditions A variety of interesting Valentine's Day traditions developed over time. For example, hundreds of years ago in England, children dressed up as adults on Valentine's Day and went singing holiday verses from door to door. In Wales, wooden love spoons, carved with key, keyhole and heart designs, were given as gifts. The gift of flowers on Valentine's Day probably dates to the early 1700s when Charles II of Sweden brought the Persian poetical art called "the language of flowers" to Europe. Valentine cards were exchanged with a lily or lilac, or a bouquet of flowers. The more popular the flower, the more traditions and meanings have been associated with it.
Slide 6 - The rose, representing love, is probably the only flower with a meaning that is universally understood. The red rose remains the most popular flower bought by men in the United States for their sweethearts. In more recent years, people have sent their sweethearts their favorite flowers, rather than for roses. Also making the list of valentine favorites are tulips, lilies, daisies and carnations.
Slide 7 - Among early valentine gifts were candies, usually chocolates, in heart-shaped boxes. Companies like Godiva Chocolatiers have made high quality chocolate in artistic designs and elegant wrappings a traditional Valentine's gift. Today, just about anything goes for a Valentine's Day gift, depending on the recepient's tastes. If you're trying to move away from the flowers and candy, you can choose anything from stuffed animals to the latest gadgets.
Slide 8 - What are the valentine traditions? What flowers do people send their sweetheart on St. Valentine day? What other gifts are used on this day?
Slide 9 - The First Written Valentines Verbal and singing valentines began to be replaced by written cards in Europe in the 15th century. The first written valentine is usually attributed to the imprisoned Charles, Duke of Orleans, in 1415. He passed the time by writing romantic verses for his wife. By the 16th century, written valentines were commonplace.
Slide 10 - What were early valentines like? Early valentines were made by hand, using colored paper, watercolors and colored inks. These valentine styles, some still made today, included: Pinprick valentines - Made by pricking tiny holes in paper with a pin to resemble the look of lace Cutout valentines- Lace-look cards made by folding paper several times and cutting out a lace design with small, sharp scissors Acrostic valentines - Verses in which the first letters in the lines spelled out the beloved's name Rebus valentines - Verses in which small pictures took the place of some of the words (for example, an eye instead of I)
Slide 11 - Cards decorated with black and white pictures painted by factory workers began to be created in the early 1800s; by the end of the century, valentines were being made entirely by machine, they were an easy way for people to express their feelings in a time when direct expression of emotions was not fashionable. Manufactured cards were often small works of art, richly decorated with silk, satin or lace, flowers or feathers and even gold leaf. And many featured Cupid, the son of Venus. Some of the more unusual valentines were created by lonely sailors during the Victorian era -- they used seashells of various sizes to create hearts, flowers and other designs or to cover heart-shaped boxes.
Slide 12 - Valentine Symbols It's not difficult to figure out the connection between the heart and Valentine's Day. The heart, after all, was thought in ancient times to be the source of all emotions. It later came to be associated only with the emotion of love. It's not clear when the valentine heart shape became the symbol for the heart. Some scholars speculate that the heart symbol as we use it to signify romance or love came from early attempts by people to draw an organ they'd never seen. Anyway, here are some of the other valentine symbols and their origins:
Slide 13 - Red roses were said to be the favorite flower of Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Also, red is a color that signifies strong feelings. Lace has long been used to make women's handkerchiefs. Hundreds of years ago, if a woman dropped her handkerchief, a man might pick it up for her. Sometimes, if she had her eye on the right man, a woman might intentionally drop her handkerchief to encourage him. So, people began to think of romance when they thought of lace. Love knots have series of winding and interlacing loops with no beginning and no end. A symbol of everlasting love, love knots were made from ribbon or drawn on paper. Lovebirds, colorful birds found in Africa, are so named because they sit closely together in pairs -- like sweethearts do. Doves are symbols of loyalty and love, because they mate for life and share the care of their babies.
Slide 14 - How about the "X" sign representing a kiss? This tradition started with the Medieval practice of allowing those who could not write to sign documents with an "X". This was done before witnesses, and the signer placed a kiss upon the "X" to show sincerity. This is how the kiss came to be synonymous with the letter "X", and how the "X" came to be commonly used at the end of letters as kiss symbols. It became easier to mail valentines in the mid 1800s, until then, postage was so pricey that most cards were delivered by hand. Esther Howland struck gold with the first commercial American valentines. Today, there are nearly 2,000 greeting card publishers in the United States.
Slide 15 - What are the Valentine symbols? What is the connection of heart with Valentine’s day? How were the Valentines made?
Slide 16 - For your homework write a composition: The history of Valentine day.