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Slide 1 - Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science Richard Kenway
Slide 2 - e-science = searching for the unknown discovery science in vast amounts of data
Slide 3 - electronic ‘needle in a haystack’ to find the Higgs boson and explain where mass comes from you need to build a Grid and … are not enough
Slide 4 - LHC computing challenge Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs Online System Offline Farm~20,000 PCs CERN Computer Centre >20,000 PCs RAL Regional Centre US Regional Centre French Regional Centre Italian Regional Centre Institute Institute Institute Institute ~200 PCs Workstations ~100 MByte/sec ~100 MByte/sec 100 - 1000 Mbit/sec HPSS HPSS one bunch crossing per 25 ns 100 triggers per second each event is ~1 MByte physicists work on analysis “channels” each institute has ~10 physicists working on one or more channels data for these channels is cached by the institute server Physics data cache ~PByte/sec ~ Gbit/sec or Air Freight HPSS HPSS HPSS Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs ~Gbit/sec Tier 0 Tier 1 Tier 3 Tier 4 assumes PC = ~ 25 SpecInt95 ScotGRID++ ~1000 PCs Tier 2
Slide 5 - the web on steroids 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented the web so physicists around the world could share documents 1999: Grids add to the web computing power data management big instruments (eventually) sensors
Slide 6 - a new global infrastructure the Grid is an emergent infrastructure to deliver dependable, pervasive and uniform access to globally distributed, dynamic and heterogeneous resources problems of scalability, interoperability, fault tolerance, resource management and security information on demand - like power from a socket
Slide 7 - underpinning technology
Slide 8 - why now? for 50 years, we have been riding the crest of a IT wave building vast untapped global resources hundreds of millions of (mostly) idle PCs big science is facing a data tsunami and 3.5 million users 22 teraflops
Slide 9 - increase in MIPS per chip microprocessor speeds double every 18 months (Moore’s Law)
Slide 10 - internet hosts network capacity doubles every 9 months
Slide 11 - fixed lines, mobile phones & internet users millions
Slide 12 - Quality of Service on the internet aim to distinguish types of traffic high priority fast lanes low priority slow lanes hard to configure intersim simulation tool detailed model of network understand and validate configurations EPCC + Cisco Systems
Slide 13 - Grid applications
Slide 14 - whole-system simulations NASA Information Power Grid: coupling all sub-system simulations
Slide 15 - global in-flight engine diagnostics Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment: Universities of Leeds, Oxford, Sheffield &York
Slide 16 - National Airspace Simulation Environment NASA Information Power Grid: aircraft, flight paths, airport operations and the environment are combined to get a virtual national airspace
Slide 17 - from genome to function gene expression as an embryo develops EPCC MouseGrid: optical tomography image reconstruction in real time
Slide 18 - digital radiology on the Grid 28 petabytes/year for 2000 hospitals must satisfy privacy laws University of Pennsylvania
Slide 19 - emergency response teams bring sensors, data, simulations and experts together wildfire: predict movement of fire & direct fire-fighters also earthquakes, peacekeeping forces, battlefields,… Los Alamos National Laboratory: wildfire National Earthquake Simulation Grid
Slide 20 - Earth observation ENVISAT € 3.5 billion 400 terabytes/year 700 users ground deformation prior to a volcano
Slide 21 - Grid development
Slide 22 - data, information and knowledge virtual data …from the grid from a database somewhere computed on request measured on request automated knowledge …from computer science data: un-interpreted bits and bytes information: data equipped with meaning knowledge: information applied to solve a problem
Slide 23 - three layer Grid abstraction
Slide 24 - the Grid as an evolving concept enabler for transient ‘virtual organisations’ anatomy: a software infrastructure that enables flexible, secure, co-ordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources Foster, Kesselman & Tuecke (2001) evolution of and integration with web services physiology: everything is a Grid service ie a service that conforms to a set of conventions for management and exchanging messages Foster, Kesselman, Nick & Tuecke (2002) Global Grid Forum: define a standard Grid architecture big business and big science working together
Slide 25 - e-science in Scotland
Slide 26 - UK e-Science programme ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’ ‘e-Science will change the dynamic of the way science is undertaken.’ John Taylor Director General of Research Councils Office of Science and Technology
Slide 27 - £80m Collaborative projects E-Science Steering Committee DG Research Councils Director Director’s Management Role Director’s Awareness and Co-ordination Role Generic Challenges EPSRC (£15m), DTI (£15m) Industrial Collaboration (£40m) Academic Application Support Programme Research Councils (£74m), DTI (£5m) PPARC (£26m) BBSRC (£8m) MRC (£8m) NERC (£7m) ESRC (£3m) EPSRC (£17m) CLRC (£5m) Grid TAG UK e-Science funding
Slide 28 - Cambridge Newcastle Edinburgh Oxford Glasgow Manchester Cardiff Soton London Belfast DL RAL Hinxton UK e-science centres AccessGrid always-on video walls
Slide 29 - National e-Science Centre Edinburgh + Glasgow Universities Physics & Astronomy  2 Informatics, Computing Science EPCC £6M EPSRC/DTI + £2M SHEFC over 3 years www.nesc.ac.uk e-Science Institute visitors, workshops, co-ordination, outreach middleware development 50 : 50 industry : academia ‘last-mile’ networking
Slide 30 - data, data everywhere… Scottish e-Data Information & Knowledge Transformation Centre (eDIKT) proposal to SHEFC for a centre to develop scalable database tools astronomy, bioinformatics, geophysics, particle physics & commerce globally distributed heterogeneous databases are growing very fast science is at the frontier commerce, healthcare, entertainment are not far behind
Slide 31 - Scotland at the frontier… leading UK AstroGrid virtual observatory linked to EU AVO UK GridPP + ScotGrid particle physics data analysis linked to EU DataGrid UK core e-science data integration linked to US Globus EU enacts + GRIDSTART supercomputer centres EU grid projects
Slide 32 - Scotland at the frontier… participating EU DataGrid: particle physics, biology & medical imaging, Earth observation over 100 scientists engaged in grid development by the end of 2002 US DARPA Control of Agent-Based Systems Grid: multinational military operations UK RealityGrid: interactively couple experiments, simulations and visualisation
Slide 33 - imagine a political party reception…
Slide 34 - the leader enters…
Slide 35 - a rumour is started…
Slide 36 - and propagates across the room
Slide 37 - from little acorns… “ … a billion people interacting with a million e-businesses with a trillion intelligent devices interconnected ” Lou Gerstner, IBM (2000) “ It is worth noting that an essential feature of the type of theory which has been described in this note is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons. ” Peter Higgs (1964) another technological revolution is underway