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Slide 1 - Thermoregulation and Dinosaurs
Slide 2 - Thermoregulation All animals have optimum body temperature. Biochemical functions are run by enzymes, which are only effective in a certain temperature range. A variety of mechanisms are used to keep the body within the favorable temperature range. A few important terms: Ectotherms:  obtain most of their heat from outside their body Endotherms:  generate most of their heat internally. Poikilotherms: allow their body temperature to vary widely Homeotherms: keep their body temperatures within a limited range.
Slide 3 - Metabolism ("burning" of food to produce energy) is the internal energy source in animals. Endotherms (mammals, birds) typically have metabolic rates 10x higher than Ectotherms (living amphibians and reptiles) of an equivalent size.  Endotherms consume 10x more food, and breathe in 10x more oxygen, than an equivalent sized ectotherm. At present, animals with high metabolic rates (endotherms) also have body temperatures significantly higher than ambient temperatures (they are warm), and they don't let their body temperatures vary too much (they are homeotherms). In contrast, animals with lower metabolic rates (ectotherms) have body temperatures not too much higher than ambient temperature (they are "cold"), and they let their body temperatures vary considerably (they are heterotherms).
Slide 4 - Temperature Regulation in Modern Ectotherms Avoid climates where temperature vary widely or go outside the optimal range. Stay near water or near the equator (e.g., living amphibians) Behavioral thermoregulation: Use activity to control body temp. Warm up exercises - Flying insects beat wings until their body temperature rises; Reptiles do push-ups. Basking/Hiding - Move in and out of sunlight; OK if you are small, hard if you are big.
Slide 5 - Temperature Regulation in Modern Endotherms Turn up metabolic rate to keep the body uniformly warm. Insulate the body with hair, feathers or fat. Pant and sweat to cool off, shiver to keep warm. Use the ectotherm strategies as well.
Slide 6 - Three Questions:   Were dinosaurs hot or cold? Were dinosaurs homeotherms or poikilotherms? Did dinosaurs have a high or a low metabolic rate?
Slide 7 - 1) Dinosaurs had secondary palates. The secondary palate separates allows the nasal openings to connect to the back of the throat, rather than dumping air from the nose directly into the front of the mouth.  With a secondary palate, an animal can breathe and chew at the same time.  Unsurprisingly, modern endotherms, that need lots of oxygen to run their high metabolic rates, all have secondary palates.  This has led some to speculate that all animals with a secondary palate are endotherms. Reptilian Secondary Palate
Slide 8 - The logic here is asymmetric.  All animals with a high metabolic rate probably require a secondary palate, but the converse does not apply.  The presence of a secondary palate doesn't mean the animal is an endotherm.  The ability to chew and breath simultaneously would probably benefit any organism that needs to keep its mouth shut for a long time while feeding.  For example, ectothermic crocodiles have a partial secondary palate, perhaps because they hold their prey in their mouths underwater for a long time to kill them. Summary:  NO SUPPORT for warmth, a high metabolic rates, or homeothermy 1) Dinosaurs had secondary palates cont.
Slide 9 - 2) Erect Posture Today, all endotherms have an upright posture.  They position their legs under their bodies, rather than sprawled out to the side.   Some scientists have argued that an upright posture is a sign that the animal is an endotherm.  As dinosaurs had upright posture, they have argued that dinosaurs were endotherms.
Slide 10 - 2) Erect Posture cont. Before accepting such an argument, it is worth considering why endotherms have upright posture. Upright posture appears to have solved a major problem in vertebrate evolution. Upright posture is necessary for an animal to have stamina - the ability to conduct sustained aerobic exercise. Mammals and birds are capable of sustained aerobic exercise. Living reptiles and amphibians have a low capacity for sustained exercise; they use Ambush Tactics to get prey.
Slide 11 - 2) Erect Posture cont. Where does the energy come from to fuel locomotion? Aerobic Respiration involves complete combustion of food to carbon dioxide and water.  It is an extremely efficient way to use fuel, but it requires oxygen. Anaerobic Metabolism also produces heat and energy It has a lower energy yield than aerobic respiration. It is accompanied by a build up of acids and alcohols, which impede muscle function. It leads to an oxygen debt, as acids and alcohols must ultimately be fully oxidized. So, anaerobic metabolism can't be sustained, it is good for sprinting, but animals must eventually stop to get oxygen. Living reptiles and amphibians use anaerobic metabolism to fuel burst activity.  They seem to have a limited ability to obtain oxygen to fuel sustained aerobic activity.
Slide 12 - 2) Erect Posture cont. What is the source of this limitation on oxygen supply? Dave Carrier hooked up electrodes to the feet of reptiles and a flow meter to the nose, then chased them down a track. He discovered that reptiles can't breathe and walk at the same time. Why is this? In amphibian and reptiles, the body undergoes lateral flexing during locomotion.  During this flexing on land, air is pumped from side-to-side (from lung-to-lung), rather than in and out.  To breath, reptiles must stop, then use their rib musculature to expand/contract the entire rib cage. Living reptiles and amphibians are operating under an Evolutionary Constraint. They use the same muscles, in antagonistic ways, for walking and breathing.
Slide 13 - 2) Erect Posture cont. How have animals accomodated this constraint? Amphibians: mostly aquatic, propulsion from tail, land beasts suffered. Modern reptiles: move in bursts, fast recovery following anaerobic bursts. Pelycosaur Solution:  Stiff back bone, propel body with rear limbs and just use front limbs as props.  Body didn't bend during locomotion. Archosaur/Therapsid Solution: Erect Posture. Put the limbs under the body. Move limbs forward and backward. Flex body vertically rather not laterally.
Slide 14 - 2) Erect Posture cont. What does any of this have to do with temperature regulation? Erect posture would allow sustained maintenance of a high metabolic rate (i.e., endothermy). All living warm-blooded animals (mammals and birds) have an erect posture. But as with a secondary palate, erect posture does not obligate an animal to have a high metabolic rate, it only makes it possible. Summary:  NO SUPPORT for warmth, a high metabolic rates, or homeothermy.
Slide 15 - When this pattern was first noted, it was thought that endotherms remodeled their bones to exploit stored nutrients to fuel their high metabolic rates.  This is certainly part of the answer. Some baby dinosaurs had woven "fast growth" bone. 3) Bone Structure: two key observations Some dinosaurs had extensively remodeled bone. Remodeled bone:  Many living endotherms exhibit a high degree of bone remodeling, whereas many living ectotherms deposit bones in concentric bands that are not subsequently remodeled.  Ground bone preparation of warm blooded vertebrates: Haversian canal, osteocyte lacunae, canaliculi for the fine processes of communicating osteocytes -- they interconnect via gap junctions allowing passage of small hormones, ions, nutrients. Haversian systems is seen in a fossilized dinosaur bone above. Since in modern vertebrates only warm blooded adults form Haversian systems, their presence in the fossil has been used to argue that dinosaurs were warm blooded.
Slide 16 - Fast growth bone:  Endotherms have peculiar type of woven bone that is indicative of rapid growth.  Rapid growth is only possible in warm animals, as cellular activity and enzyme function often go faster at higher temperatures. Problems with Bone Data Subsequent observations have shown that remodeling is not uniquely associated with high metabolic rate. Bones remodel in response to applied stress.  If dinosaurs stressed their bones extensively, which is likely given the high loads their bones must bear, they should show remodeling no matter what their metabolic rate. Summary:  NO SUPPORT for warmth, a high metabolic rates, or homeothermy from bone remodeling. 3) Bone Structure cont.
Slide 17 - 3) Bone Structure cont. However, there is no doubt that young dinosaurs had woven bone, indicating that they had high growth rates.  If crocodile babies are raised in high temperature incubators, they will grow fast and exhibit woven bone. Summary:  STRONG SUPPORT that baby dinosaurs were warm
Slide 18 - 4) Predator/Prey Ratios Because of their high metabolic rates, endotherms need more food than similar sized ectotherms. Endothermy is expensive.  If we compare biomass of predator to prey, we should find a higher percentage of predators, if the predator are ectotherms than if predators are endotherms. We can't compare herbivore biomass to plant biomass, as we have no way of assessing the latter in the fossil record.  We can attempt to compare carnivore biomass to herbivore biomass, however.
Slide 19 - 4) Predator/Prey Ratios cont. Observations Modern soil litter communties: 25% predator/75% prey Modern grassland mammal communities:1% predator/99% prey Permian Pelycosaurs communities: 25% predator/75% prey Permian Therapsid and Triassic Archosaur communities: 10% predators/90% prey Mesozoic Dinosaur and Cenozoic mammal communities: <5% predators/>95% prey These observations would suggest that dinosaur carnivores, like mammal carnivores of the Cenozoic, were endotherms.
Slide 20 - 4) Predator/Prey Ratios cont. Problems with the approach It is difficult to figure who eats who.  We tend to lose smaller animals from the fossil record.  This is a bias against prey. Most fossil beds are attritional accumulations, representing the bodies piled up on a landscape due to death over 100s of years.  This line of reasoning only works for standing biomass, what is out there on the landscape for any instant in time.  Attritional accumulations may not accurately reflect standing biomass.  Summary:  NO SUPPORT for warmth, a high metabolic rates, or homeothermy
Slide 21 - 5) Relatives and descendents of Dinosaurs are endotherms Pterosaurs, the next of kin of dinosaurs, and birds, descendents of dinosaurs, were both endotherms.  If we assume the evolution is parsimonious (i.e., that it occurs with the fewest number of evolutionary transitions), we should assume that archosaur endothermy arose one time, on the branch leading from the last common ancestor with crocodile-like archosaurs and the common ancestor of pterosaurs and dinosaurs.  More specifically, some dinosaurs are very closely related to birds, who are endotherms, and it is not unreasonable to assume that endothermy may have evolved before flight and other bird characteristics. Summary:  WEAK-MODERATE SUPPORT for warmth, a high metabolic rate, and homeothermy, particularly in Theropod dinosaurs.
Slide 22 - 6) Some dinosaurs had feathers In addition to their function in flight, feathers also serve as insulation for birds, holding in body heat.  The presence of feathers in dinosaurs that clearly could not fly suggests that they were trying to control heat loss. Summary:  STRONG SUPPORT for warmth and a high metabolic rate in dinosaurs with feathers (only small theropods are known to have been feathered at this point).
Slide 23 - 7) Inertial Heating and Homeothermy Dinosaurs had a large body volume, from which they generated heat, relative to the area of their skin, through which they lost heat.  As a consequence, large dinosaurs should have heated up and cooled down very slowly, with body core temperatures only changing 1 to 2°C throughout the day. A low surface-to-volume ratio also impedes heat loss, such that big dinosaurs would have been warmer than ambient temperatures, even if they had a reptilian metabolic rates, even if we ignore the heat produced by veggies and food fermenting in the gut, which can be substantial.
Slide 24 - Temperature difference between the body and air for dinosaurs at four body sizes So, big dinosaurs would have been warm and homeothermic just because of size. A slight increase in metabolic rate would allow them to maintain temperature well above ambient.  If big dinosaurs had mammalian or avian metabolic rates, however, they would have boiled. Summary:  STRONG SUPPORT for warmth and homeothermy coupled with a low metabolic rate in large dinosaurs
Slide 25 - 8) Oxygen isotope thermometer? The 18O to 16O ratio of a mineral, such as apatite in bones and teeth, is determined by the isotopic composition of the water from which it forms and by the temperature at which it forms.  Reese Barrick and Bill Showers have attempted to take the "temperature" of different bones from dinosaur bodies.  They assume that the water in a single individual will be the throughout the body If they get the similar oxygen isotope ratios in different body parts, then these parts probably formed at the same temperature (i.e., the animal was a homeotherm).  If they get different oxygen isotope ratios in different bones, the animal was a heterotherm.  Because, today, all strongly homeothermic animals are also endotherms, they argue that demonstration of homeothermy would also imply that the animal was an endotherm.
Slide 26 - 8) Oxygen isotope thermometer? cont. Observations They've examined big theropods, big ornithnopods, and baby ornithopods, and in all cases, have found little evidence for temperature variations among skeletal parts.  They have argued that all these animals were homeotherms.
Slide 27 - 8) Oxygen isotope thermometer? cont. Problems with approach: First, you might worry that this result is an artifact, produced by homogenization during the process that converts an organic animal bone into an inert rocky fossil.  Yet in one of their studies, Barrick and Showers also analyzed a crocodile, and discovered that "isotopic" temperatures varied across the skeleton of this presumed heterotherm.  At least in this deposit, original values were preserved in bones despite fossilization. A second, more serious concern, relates to the logic linking homeothermy with endothermy.  Animal body temperatures may not vary because animals live in places where the ambient temperature is invariant.  It's hard to know what Mesozoic climates were like, but all available evidence suggests the climate was much more moderate, with reduced seasonal temperature extremes and overall higher mean annual temperatures.  Also, as noted above, large size may render big animals functional homeotherm despite the fact that they have a low metabolic rate. Summary:  MODERATE SUPPORT for homeothermy in adult theropods and ornithopods and baby ornithopods.
Slide 28 - 9) Nasal Volume Animals with high metabolic rates breath in and out 10x as much as ectotherms with low metabolic rates.  As a consequence, they must modify their nasal regions to warm the air on the intake and prevent water loss on exhalation.  Mammals and birds do this by expanding the nasal region above the secondary palate, and filling it with fine bones that are covered with highly vascularized tissue.  These fine bones don't preserve well, but the increased volume created from them does show up in the fossil record.  If we take the cross-sectional area of the nasal volume in the snouts of modern endotherms, we discover that it is 10x larger than the area in an equivalent sized ectotherm.  In the end, this is a simple reflection of the difference in metabolic rates between these types of organisms.
Slide 29 - 9) Nasal Volume cont. John Ruben and his colleagues at Oregon State University have analyzed the snout areas of several different types of dinosaurs, including small theropds.  They discovered that these dinosaurs fall on the ECTOTHERM nose area line.  They don't seem to have noses modified for the high ventilation rates required by endothermy.
Slide 30 - 9) Nasal Volume cont. Problems with the method: It's hard to see how this one can be wrong.  It may be difficult to estimate the area of the nasal region, but the dinosaurs that have been studied are so small relative to the expectations for endothermy that this can't be a major problem.  The only way this type analysis might fail is if dinosaurs had some other system for recapturing water and warming air, perhaps using regions in their throats rather than regions in their nose.
Slide 31 - 10) Four Chambered Heart Mammals and birds have a four-chambered heart, so that they can effectively segregate highly-oxygenated blood arriving from the lungs from poorly-oxygenated venous blood arriving from the rest of the body.  Ectothermic animals, that have lower oxygen utilization rates, lack such complicated and efficient systems for pumping blood.  Recently, a group of workers, including Barrick and Showers, have discovered the fossilized remains of a heart inside the chest of an ornithopod dinosaur.  They used CAT scans to demonstrate that the heart had four-chambers.  They conclude that the animal was an endotherm.
Slide 32 - 10) Four Chambered Heart cont. Problems with the method: Deducing that ornithopods were endotherms from this kind of evidence suffers from the same logical flaws as trying to demonstrate endothermy from a secondary palate or upright posture.  All endotherm may have a four-chambered heart, but the converse need not be true.
Slide 33 - BOTTOM LINE ON DINOSAURS Dinosaur babies were warm and homeothermic (3,8).  Since they had no inertial heating (7), they probably achieved this state with a high metabolic rate, though we can't completely rule out that they lived in warm climates. Small theropod dinosaurs were warm (5,6).  Since they had no inertial heating (7), they too probably had high metabolic rates, though their low nasal volume (10) is a problem that must ultimately be addressed. Large theropods were homeotherms, either by inertia or a high metabolic rate. Large sauropods and ornithopods were almost certainly warm and homeothermic, but with arelatively low metabolic rates (7).  As they grew from babies to adults, they slowed down their metabolic rate.