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Slide 1 - Depression Among Children By: Rachel Coppola
Slide 2 - What is Depression? According to Webster's Dictionary depression is defined as, “a state of feeling sad. A psycho neurotic or psychotic disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking, and concentrating, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness”
Slide 3 - Signs of Depression Crying Feeling Sad Helplessness Hopelessness Feeling Worthless Persistent Boredom Low Energy
Slide 4 - Other Signs of Depression Bad Temper Easily Annoyed Fearful Anxious Social Isolation Poor Communication Emotional Outbursts
Slide 5 - Physical Signs of Depression Drop in School Performance Poor Concentration Significant Increase or Decrease in Appetite Change in Sleep Habits Repeated Physical Complaints head aches stomach aches aching arms and legs
Slide 6 - Sad? Or Depressed? Even though one may see some of these changes it doesn't necessarily mean that the child is depressed. Everyone gets sad once in a while. More than ½ of teenagers go through a sad period at least once a month and plenty of children do too. Just because one's child may be sad doesn't mean he is depressed. Children can get sad over small things like losing a favorite toy or not getting what they want.
Slide 7 - Alone Time Sometimes when a child's mood is sad, they just feel like being alone for a little while Leaving a child alone to play or just alone in general may be helpful for a child. In that time alone the child can have time to think to themselves and maybe even forget why they are sad.
Slide 8 - Comfort A child might want someone to comfort them or just keep them company while they go through the sad feelings. If a child is alone and says he doesn't want anyone near him, he really might want someone to comfort him. The best thing to do in a situation like this, is to wait a little while before going to comfort him. This gives the child time to calm down, then he might be more open for talking about his feelings. Talking about what has made him sad usually helps the sad feeling melt away. Feeling sad every once in a while is natural.
Slide 9 - Causes of Depression Some things that may occur in a child's life that may cause depression include: Loss or separation, this is the most common cause of depression among children. Death of a relative, friend or pet. Separation of parents or even divorce Even a separation or divorce of a friend's parents Other changes, such as moving to new town or changing schools and leaving old friends can be causes of depression. Getting a new sibling Disappointments like losing a game, getting a bad grade, or being left out.
Slide 10 - Relationships Relationships can also cause depression in children. It could be stressful for a child to see his parents dating other people. If the child has a girlfriend or boyfriend and their parents don't approve of, it can trigger depression. Many kids fight with family members, especially their parents, in the struggle to grow up and gain independence Other things that can cause depression may be, other kids, both friends and enemies, can cause feelings and sadness through fighting, teasing, peer pressure, not giving your support, or leaving you out of group activities. Feeling misunderstood by people close to you can lead to feelings of sadness
Slide 11 - Statistics An estimated 1 out of 10 children have difficulty escaping the symptoms of depression for long periods of time. The rate of depression is marked lower than (1%) in children ages 1 to 6 years old. The rate is higher in older children ages 9 to 12 (12%)
Slide 12 - Who's Effected? Childhood and adolescent depression increased dramatically in the past forty to fifty years. The average age of onset has fallen. During childhood the number of boys and girls affected are almost equal. In adolescents twice as many girls as boys are diagnosed. (Similar to adult rate) Repeated episodes of depression can take a great toll on a young mind. Well over half of depressed adolescents have a recurrence within seven years. Children with Major Depression have an increased incidence of Bipolar Disorder and recurrent Major Depression
Slide 13 - Suicide Depression can lead to an increased chance of suicide attempts and successful suicides. Since 1950, the adolescent suicide rate has risen four fold 12% of the total adolescent mortality in 1993 was due to suicide. Suicide is not always associated with Major Depression Disorder (MDD). Most children who are depressed become depressed adolescents. Untreated or improperly treated depression is the number one cause of suicide in the United States. Proper treatment relieves symptoms in 80 to 90 percent of all patients.
Slide 14 - Repeated Episodes of Depression The occurrence of a single episode of depression increases the chance of another such episode. After one episode, a person is 50% more likely to have a second episode. After the second episode, the risk rises to 70 % for a third episode. After a third episode, the risk reaches 90 % for yet another episode. For this reason, patients with repeated episodes may require long-term treatment with drugs and/or psychosocial therapy. About 5% of children and adolescents in the general population suffer from depression at any given point in time.
Slide 15 - In many cases when children or adolescents become depressed they become involved in bad or inappropriate activities or habits, such as abusing alcohol or other drugs. Depressed adolescents may abuse alcohol or other drugs as a way to feel better. They may write suicidal thoughts or they might say things pertaining to killing or hurting themselves. Depression is associated with school and interpersonal problems. It is also correlated with increased incidence of suicide behavior, violent thoughts, alcohol, early pregnancy, tobacco and other drug abuse. A child who used to play often and with friends may now spend most of the time alone and without interests. Things that were once fun now bring little joy to the depressed child. Effects Depression Has on Children
Slide 16 - Treatment There are many ways to help a depressed child. Some of the ways would be to first, get help or advice from a doctor. Sometimes treatment involves talking to someone who knows all about depression. Talking to your child about his feelings can also help. As a parent one should seek immediate care for one's child. Parents should become familiar with the symptoms and signs of depression. Counseling and therapy are the most important things to do for the depressed child.
Slide 17 - Consult a Doctor After consulting a doctor, and your child is diagnosed with depression, some helpful things to do to help the child become happier can be as simple as, spending more time with him, making him feel loved and wanted, don't let him skip meals and make sure he maintains a proper diet. He should also have a regular sleep pattern. Try to have him avoid taking naps or staying up late and become more physically active with your child, such as walking, riding bikes, going to parks etc. Physical activity can help relieve or manage depression Spend time with the child, listen well and be understanding Just become more involved in the child's life, this will increase happiness for the whole family.
Slide 18 - Medication Medication can also help. Several classes of medications are used with the adult populations. Major types include Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. Phenelzine), Tricyclics (e.g. Imipamine and amitriptyline) and SSRIs (e.g. Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Serazone, Luvox), Other classes have emerged as well. These drugs have been shown to be 50-70% more effective with adults than placebos and no other treatments. Very little is know about the safe use of antidepressants with children. The risk and side effects of medications and the findings that competent therapy and counseling interventions may be more effective restrict use of medications with children.
Slide 19 - Conclusion Many children who are depressed may not know they are. Their personality tends to often change. With help from caring adults, many of depressed children can find the strength to overcome their problem and go on to live better, happier, healthier lives. If you think you have sadness that simply wont go away it is important to talk to an adult about it: parent, relative, doctor, teacher, guidance counselor, coach, or close adult friend. This person can help you find the right type of treatment. Many cities also have mental health hot lines or suicide hot lines that are listed in the phone book. There is always somebody to talk to when you are sad or if you are depressed—somebody who can help you!
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Slide 21 - ReferencesText Conner Psy. D, Michael G. "Understanding And Deal With Depression." Answers to Questions about Depression and Children 6 to 12 years old. 2001. Clinical & Medical Psychologist. 27 Feb. 2006 http://www.oregoncounseling.org/Handouts/DepressionChildren.htm. "Depression In Children And Teens." Depression In Children And Teens-familydoctor.org. 15 Nov. 2000. FamilyDoctor.org. 03 Mar. 2006 . Newton, David . "Depressive Disorders." Sick! diseases and Disorders, Injuries and Infections. ed. 2000 Sheslow, PhD, David V. "Why Am I So Sad?" Why Am I So Sad? Nov. 2004. KidsHealth Nemours Foundation. 03 Mar. 2006 . "The Depressed Child." The Depressed Child-AACAP Facts For Families #4. July 2004. AACAP. 01 Mar. 2006 . Watkins, Carol E. "Depression In Children and Adolescents." Child and Adolescent Depression. 2004. 27 Feb. 2006 . Webster, Merriam. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1991.
Slide 22 - ReferencesPhotos http://news.sky.com/sky-news/content/StaticFile/jpg/2006/Jul/Week1/1423308.jpg http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/images/300/boy_sad2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/depression2.shtml&usg=__cQlGIwjJT-mtM7AjNnJf5T-CWmg=&h=193&w=300&sz=7&hl=en&start=10&um=1&tbnid=_KpyymmLfQWb7M:&tbnh=75&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddepression%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG http://www.concern-eap.com/images/jpg-gif/depression_graphic.jpg http://www.topnews.in/health/files/depressed.jpg http://images.suite101.com/404371_com_dreamstime_4746578.jpg