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Slide 1 - Colorectal Cancer
Slide 2 - Summary: Content of Colorectal Cancer Tutorial Statistics Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract Colorectal cancer Cancer progression Staging Symptoms Risk factors Genetic testing Risk reduction factors Screening Treatment Clinical trials Current state of colorectal cancer research References http://www.webmm.ahrq.gov/media/cases/images/case67_fig1.jpg
Slide 3 - Summary: Statistics Statistics in the United States Incidence by race Death by race Incidence according to geographical location Death according to geographical location
Slide 4 - Top 10 Cancer Types and Colorectal Statistics in the US The third most common cancer in men and women The number of deaths has  over the last 15 years due to better screening, earlier detection of polyps and cancer, improved treatment, and more effective options Currently ~1 million survivors in US 5-yr survival rate with early detection >90% (occurs in ~39% cases) If cancer metastasized 5-yr survival rate, <10% C: 55,290 R: 23,840 C: 57,050 R: 17,580 C & R: 26, 000 C & R: 26, 180
Slide 5 - Colorectal Cancer Incidence According to Race in the US Currently highest incidence in African Americans Incidence : Caucasian>Asian Pacific Islander>Hispanic >American Indian (2004) www.cdc.gov
Slide 6 - Colorectal Cancer Death According to Race in US Death rate correlates with incidence rate Rate  African Americans>Whites Asian Pacific Islander, Hispanic and American Indians = similar death rate (2004) www.cdc.gov
Slide 7 - Colorectal Cancer Incidence- Geographic Location in US Lowest Incidence rate: AZ, NM, UT Highest Incidence: IL, IA, KY, LA, ME, MA, MS, NE, NJ, PA, RI, WV Colorado is in the 2nd lowest bracket of incidence (2004) www.cdc.gov
Slide 8 - Colorectal Cancer Deaths- Geographic Location in US Death rate does not correlate exactly with incidence rate Lowest death rate: HI, ID, MT, UT Highest death rate: AR, IL, IN, KY, LA, MS, NV, OH, WV Colorado is in the 2nd lowest bracket of deaths (2004) www.cdc.gov
Slide 9 - Summary: Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract Small intestine Colon 4 sections Purpose http://www.riversideonline.com/source/images/image_popup/colon.jpg
Slide 10 - Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract The colon is a part of the GI (gastrointestinal) tract where food is processed to produce energy and rid the body of waste The small intestine is where nutrients are broken down and absorbed The small intestine joins the colon (large intestine), a muscular tube about 5 feet long Small Intestine Ascending colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Transverse Colon http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1X_What_is_colon_and_rectum_cancer_10.asp?sitearea=
Slide 11 - Anatomy of the Colon and Rectum The colon has four sections: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon The first part of the colon absorbs water and nutrients from food and serves as a storage for waste Waste then travels through the rectum (the last six inches of the digestive system) and then exits through the anus
Slide 12 - Summary: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Origin Developmental period Polyps Adenocarcinoma Tissue layers Origin http://images.healthcentersonline.com/digestive/images/article/ColorectalCancer.jpg
Slide 13 - Colorectal Cancer Development Colorectal cancer refers to cancer originating in the colon or rectum and can develop in any of the four sections Colorectal cancer develops slowly over a period of years (~10-15 yrs) Colorectal cancer begins as a polyp A polyp is a growth of tissue that starts in the lining and grows into the center of the colon or rectum
Slide 14 - Colorectal Cancer Over 95% of colon and rectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucous and other fluids). These cells line the inside of the colon and rectum. http://www.colon-cancer.biz/images/coloncancerr.jpg
Slide 15 - Colorectal Cancer Each section of the colon has several layers of tissue Cancer begins in the inner layer and can grow through some or all of the tissue layers Cancer that begins in different sections of the colon may cause different symptoms The layers of the colon wall http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_3X_How_is_colon_and_rectum_cancer_staged.asp?sitearea=
Slide 16 - Summary: Cancer Progression Cancer progression Cancer Metastasis http://img105.imageshack.us/img105/365/coloncanceroz2.jpg
Slide 17 - Cancer Progression Cancer occurs when cells grow and divide without regulation and order (Stage 0, I, and IIA) Metastasis occurs when cancer cells break away from a tumor and spread to other parts of the body via the blood or lymph system (Stage IIB, III, and IV)
Slide 18 - Summary: Staging Staging Definition T categories N categories M categories Survival and staging Treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage, or extent, of disease Stage I Stage II Stage III http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/images/cancer/colc-05e.jpg
Slide 19 - Staging Staging is a standardized way that describes the spread of cancer in relation to the layers of the wall of the colon or rectum, nearby lymph nodes, and other organs The stage is dependent on the extent of spread through the different tissue layers affected The stage is an important factor in determining treatment options and prognosis One of the major staging systems in use is the AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) staging scheme, which is defined in terms of primary tumor (T), regional lymph nodes(N), and distant metastasis (M) Treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage, or extent, of disease Stage I Stage II Stage III
Slide 20 - T Staging-American Joint Committee on Cancer system (AJCC/TNM) T Categories: Describes the extent of spread of the primary tumor (T) through the layers of tissue that form the wall of the colon and rectum Tis: Cancer is in its earliest stage, has not grown beyond mucosa. Also known as carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma T1: Cancer has grown through mucosa and extends into submucosa T2: Cancer extends into thick muscle layer T3: Cancer has spread to subserosa but not to any nearby organs or tissues T4: Cancer has spread completely through wall of the colon or rectum into nearby tissues or organs http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/19218.jpg
Slide 21 - N and M Staging-American Joint Committee on Cancer system (AJCC/TNM) N categories: describes the absence or presence of metastasis to nearby lymph nodes (N) N0: No lymph node involvement N1: Cancer cells found in 1-3 regional lymph nodes N2: Cancer cells found in 4 or more regional lymph nodes M Categories: describes the absence or presence of distant metastasis (M) M0: No distant spread M1: Distant spread is present Lymph nodes are small, bean shaped structures that form and store white blood cells to fight infection. An iceball in a patient with a metastases from a colon cancer receiving cryosurgery treatment http://www.livercancer.com/treatments/images/cryo.jpeg http://www.ricancercouncil.org/img/hodgkins.gif
Slide 22 - Staging-American Joint Committee on Cancer system (AJCC/TNM) Staging is an indicator of survival Stage grouping: From least advanced (stage 0) to most advanced (stage IV) stage of colorectal cancer
Slide 23 - Summary: Symptoms Symptoms Early disease Advanced disease Symptoms http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~ishigaki/FVP_Fig4.JPG
Slide 24 - Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer Early colon cancer usually presents with no symptoms. Symptoms appear with more advanced disease. Symptoms include: -a change in bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool for more than a few days) -a constant urgency of needing to have a bowel movement -bleeding from the rectum or blood in the stool (the stool often looks normal) -cramping or steady stomach pain -weakness and fatigue or anemia -unexplained weight loss A polyp as seen during colonoscopy
Slide 25 - Summary: Risk Factors Risk Factors General Exercise and obesity Smoking Alcohol Diabetes Hereditary Family Syndromes FAP Juvenile Polyposis Lynch Syndrome Cause
Slide 26 - Risk Factors
Slide 27 - Risk Factors (cont’d)
Slide 28 - Risk Factors-Inactivity and Obesity Physical activity and obesity: -Obese women have a 1.5-fold  risk -  trend in risk with  hip-to-waist ratio -Physical Inactivity leads to obesity and an  risk of colorectal cancer -Physical activity is also believed to benefit bowel transit time, immune system, serum cholesterol, and bile acid metabolism -Individuals with higher, more efficient metabolism may be at a  risk http://images.obesityhelp.com/uploads/cms/11323/complication-childhood-obesity.jpg
Slide 29 - Risk Factors-Smoking Smoking: -12% colorectal cases are attributed to smoking -Long term heavy smokers have a 2-3 fold  in colorectal adenomas -There is a greater frequency of adenomatous polyps in former smokers even after 10 years of smoking cessation -Incidence of colorectal cancer occurs at a younger age -Potential biological mechanisms: -Carcinogens  cancer growth in colon and rectum. Could reach colorectal mucosa through alimentary tract or circulatory system and then damage or alter expression of cancer-related genes - no p53 over expression in heavy cigarette smokers (p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a central role in the DNA damage response) an adenomatous polyp http://www2.medford.k12.wi.us:8400/guidance/Flu%20Vaccine%20and%20Children_files/levi-1214.gif http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/images/attachement/jpg/site1/20080403/0013729e4abe095e606c22.jpg
Slide 30 - Risk Factors-Alcohol Alcohol: -regular drinking  2 fold  risk in colorectal cancer -Diagnosis at younger age -Evidence to suggest increase in risk may be attributed to p53: -heavy beer consumption associated with p53 over expression in early colorectal neoplasia -p53 over expression correlated with p53 gene mutations -p53 over expression  from adenomatous polyps  carcinoma in situ  intramucosal carcinoma -p53 over expression associated with worse overall survival after diagnosis, more likely found in polyps in distal colon and rectum an example of a standard drink p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a central role in the DNA damage response http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/chem227/nucleicfunction/cancer/adeno-p53.gif http://d.yimg.com/origin1.lifestyles.yahoo.com/ls/he/healthwise/alcohol.jpg
Slide 31 - Risk Factors-Diabetes, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) Diabetes, Insulin, and Insulin-like growth factor: -Links to  risk of colorectal cancer: -Elevated circulating IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor) -Insulin resistance and associated complications: elevated fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids, glucose intolerance,  BMI, visceral adiposity -Elevated plasma glucose and diabetes -Insulin and IGFs stimulate proliferation of colorectal cells -Elevated insulin and glucose associated with  adenoma risk and  apoptosis (cell death) in normal rectal mucosa http://www.soylabs.com/img/diabetes_type2.jpg http://www.scubasewj.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/12/Type%201%20Diabetes.jpg
Slide 32 - Risk factors – Hereditary Family Syndromes The development of colorectal cancer is a multi-step process involving genetic mutations in the mucosal cells, activation of tumor promoting genes, and the loss of genes that suppress tumor formation Tumor suppressor genes constitute the most important class of genes responsible for hereditary cancer syndromes --Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): A syndrome attributed to a tumor suppressor gene called Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) -- Increased risk of colon and intestinal cancers Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, and promote apoptosis (programmed cell death). Defects in tumor suppressor genes cause cells to grow out of control which can then lead to cancer
Slide 33 - Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) FAP: Multiple colonic polyps Patients with an APC mutation have a 100% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer if patient fails to undergo total colectomy Adenomas (>100) occur in: colorectum, small bowel & stomach Cancer onset ~39 years Screening recommendations: - DNA testing for APC gene mutation -Annual colonoscopy starting 10-12 yrs old until 15-20 yrs -Upper endoscopy (scope through mouth to examine the esophagus, stomach and the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum). Frequency of 1-3/year when colonic polyps are detected -Older than 20 years annual upper endoscopy and colonoscopy needed http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/ColonCancer.png http://www.nature.com/modpathol/journal/v16/n4/images/3880773f1.jpg
Slide 34 - Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JP) Juvenile Polyposis: -occurs in children with sporadic juvenile polyps (benign and isolated, occasionally are multiple lesions) -Criteria for JP: 1. >5 hamartomatous (disordered, overgrowth of tissue) polyps in colorectum 2. Any hamartomatous polyps in the colorectum in a patient with a positive family history of JP 3. Any hamartomatous polyps in the stomach or small intestine -JP occurs in 1:15,000-1:50,000 individuals whereas sporadic juvenile polyps occurs in ~2% of children http://www.altcancer.com/images/polyposis.jpg
Slide 35 - Lynch Syndrome (also known as HNPCC) Lynch syndrome: Also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) A rare inherited condition that increases risk of colon cancer and other cancers 2-3% colon cancers attributed to Lynch Syndrome Increase risk for malignancy of: endometrial carcinoma (60%), ovary (15%), stomach, small bowel, hepatobiliary tract, pancreas, upper uro-epithelial tract, and brain Caused by autosomal dominant inheritance pattern (if one parent carries a gene mutation for Lynch syndrome, then 50% chance mutation passed to child) Cancer occurs at younger age <45 years Accelerated carcinogenesis: a small adenoma may develop into a carcinoma with in 2-3 yrs as opposed to ~10 yrs in general population Screening: -Colonoscopy every other year starting in 20s, and every year once reach 30s Education and genetic counseling recommended at 21 years Autosomal dominant Affected father Unaffected mother Affected Unaffected Unaffected Affected son daughter son daughter http://media.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2006/dec/pgd/dom200.jpg
Slide 36 - Cause of Lynch Syndrome --Lynch Syndrome has been attributed to mutations in mismatch repair genes Mismatch repair genes maintain genomic stability (fidelity of DNA during replication) Defects/inactivation of mismatch repair genes are associated with genome instability, predisposition to certain cancers, and resistance to certain chemotherapy agents Process of DNA replication
Slide 37 - Summary: Genetic Testing Genetic Testing Definition Things to consider Advantages Disadvantages
Slide 38 - Genetic Testing Genetic counseling must be done prior to receiving genetic testing in order to understand the pros and cons of cancer gene testing Things to consider: Does the patient really want to know their potential negative outcome? Is it worth it, given the potential emotional consequences of being a carrier of a deleterious cancer gene in regard to insurance and employment discrimination? Is the patient in an emotionally healthy state to accept a positive or negative test result?
Slide 39 - Summary: Risk Reduction Factors Risk Reduction Factors General Diet Vitamins and minerals NSAIDS http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~courses/genchem/Tutorials/Vitamins/images/Content.jpg
Slide 40 - Factors that may reduce risk
Slide 41 - Risk reduction - Diet Fiber: -Need ~20-35 g/day - daily intake  fecal bulk and  transit time -Insoluble fiber-non-degradable constituents (cereal) -Studies show no protection against colorectal cancer from cereal fibers -Soluble fiber-degradable constituents (fruits and vegetables) -Studies found protective effect from fibers from fruits and vegetables Fat: - fat (30% or less of total daily calories) Cruciferous vegetables: -Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussel sprouts, bok choy and kale -Inverse association with colorectal cancer risk Meat: -Substitute meats with  fat for chicken and fish - risk w/daily  of 100g of all meat or red meat -risk w/daily  of 25g processed meat - intake of carcinogenic compounds produced when meat is well cooked at high temperatures  risk of adenomas http://www.diseaseproof.com/Animal%20Fat%20vs%20Intestinal%20Cancer.jpg
Slide 42 - Risk reduction– Vitamins & Minerals There is evidence to suggest that the following are potentially beneficial at reducing risk: Calcium Vitamin E Selenium -carotene Lactobacilli Folate -Folate is an essential cofactor needed in DNA synthesis, stability, integrity, and repair -Folate helps  risk colon cancer (not rectal) -Smokers may benefit from a higher daily intake of folate (smoking interferes with folate utilization and/or metabolism) -Folate deficiency is implicated in carcinogenesis, particularly in rapidly proliferative tissues, such as the colorectal mucosa
Slide 43 - Risk reduction-NSAIDs Prospects for chemoprevention (a reduced risk of developing colorectal cancer and/or preventing polyp occurrence): Vitamins A, C, D, E, -carotene, calcium, folate, anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and H2 antagonists (COX-2 inhibitors). Evidence that NSAIDS and COX-2 inhibitors are most useful NSAID use: -Appears to prevent or reduce frequency of carcinogen-induced animal colonic tumors -NSAIDs appear to reduce growth rates in colon cancer cell lines -NSAIDs have adverse effects on: kidney, skin, lung, liver, gastrointestinal bleeding, peptic ulcers -The dose and duration of treatment is related to its beneficial effects COX-2 Inhibitors: -Are useful because COX-2 levels are  in inflamed tissues http://www.chuv.ch/cpo_research/images/cox.jpg
Slide 44 - Summary: Screening Screening Physical exam Fecal occult blood test Flexible sigmoidoscopy Barium enema Virtual colonoscopy Colonoscopy Guidelines, Advantages, and Disadvantages http://www.sdirad.com/images/topic_graphics/VC_combo.jpg
Slide 45 - Screening Medical History and Physical Exam: A history (symptoms and risk factors) and DRE (digital rectal exam) is performed for patients thought to have colon cancer. An abdominal exam is performed to feel for masses or enlarged organs. Does patient have symptoms of CRC? Yes Diagnostic studies What is patient’s risk for CRC? Patient’s age? Average >50 Do not screen If positive Screening Diagnosis and surveillance Diagnosis and surveillance Diagnosis and surveillance Screening, genetic counseling and testing Increased Patient’s history? Personal history Family history Inflammatory Bowel Disease, CRC, or adenomatous polyps Genetic syndrome, or CRC in 1 or 2 1st degree relatives or adenomatous polyps in 1st degree relative <60 yrs old No <50
Slide 46 - Screening Options: Fecal Occult Blood Test Stool Blood Test (FOBT or FIT): Used to find small amounts of blood in the stool. If found further testing should be done. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/dictionary/pages/images/fobt.gif http://www.owenmed.com/hemoccult.jpg
Slide 47 - Screening: Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: A sigmoidoscope, a slender, lighted tube the thickness of a finger, is placed into lower part of colon through rectum It allows physician to look at inside of rectum and lower third of colon for cancer or polyps Is uncomfortable but not painful. Preparation consists of an enema to clean out lower colon If small polyp found then will be removed. If adenoma polyp or cancer found, then colonoscopy will be done to look at the entire colon http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/1083.jpg
Slide 48 - Screening: Barium Enema Barium enema with air contrast: A chalky substance is used to partially fill and open up the colon Air is then pumped in which causes the colon to expand and allows clear x-rays to be taken If an area looks abnormal then a colonoscopy will be done A cancer of the ascending colon. Tumor appears as oval shadow at left over right pelvic bone http://www.acponline.org/graphics/observer/may2006/special_lg.jpg
Slide 49 - Screening: Virtual Colonoscopy Virtual Colonoscopy: Air is pumped into the colon in order for it to expand followed by a CT scan which takes hundreds of images of the lower abdomen Bowel prep is needed but procedure is completely non-invasive and no sedation is needed Is not recommended by ACS or other medical organizations for early detection. More studies need to be done to determine its effectiveness in regard to early detection Is not recommended if you have a history of colorectal cancer, Chron’s disease, or ulcerative colitis If abnormalities found then follow-up with colonoscopy
Slide 50 - Screening: Colonoscopy Colonoscopy: A colonoscope, a long, flexible, lighted tube about the thickness of a finger, is inserted through the rectum up into the colon Allows physician to see the entire colon Bowel prep of strong laxatives to clean out colon, and the day of the procedure an enema will be given Procedure lasts ~15-30 minutes and are under mild sedation Early cancers can be removed by colonoscope during colonoscopy http://www.cadth.ca/media/healthupdate/Issue6/hta_update_mr-colonograpy2.jpg
Slide 51 - Screening Guidelines, Advantages, and Disadvantages *American Cancer Society Recommendation
Slide 52 - Summary: Treatment Treatment Colon surgery Rectal surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Side effects of all therapies http://recong2.com/system/files/erbitux_avastin.png
Slide 53 - Treatment-Colon Surgery 4 main types of treatment: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Depending on the stage, 2 or 3 different treatment types may be combined. Colon Surgery: Main treatment for colon cancer Patient is given laxatives and enema General anesthesia is required The cancerous tissue and a length of normal tissue on either side of the cancer, as well as the nearby lymph nodes are removed The remaining sections of the colon are then reattached A temporary colostomy (colon is attached to the abdominal wall and fecal matter drains into a bag) may be needed. Very rarely is a permanent colostomy needed http://ae.medseek.com/adam04/graphics/images/en/15802.jpg
Slide 54 - Treatment-Rectal Surgery Rectal Surgery: Several methods for removing or destroying rectal cancers Local resection for those with stage I rectal cancer. Cutting through all layers of the rectum to remove invasive cancers and some surrounding normal rectal tissue. Many stage I and most stage II and III are removed by either low anterior (LA) resection or abdominoperineal (AP) resection LA resection-for cancers near upper part of rectum, colon is reattached to the lower part of the rectum and waste elimination is normal AP resection-for cancers in the lower part of rectum, the cancerous tissue as well as the anus is and a permanent colostomy is necessary Photocoagulation (heating the rectal tumor with a laser beam aimed through the anus) is an option for relieving or preventing rectal blockage in patients with stage IV cancer http://www.mfi.ku.dk/ppaulev/chapter22/images/22-22.jpg
Slide 55 - Treatment-Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy: -Treatment with high energy rays (such as x-rays) to kill or shrink cancer cells -May be external radiation (from outside of the body) or radioactive materials placed directly in the tumor (internal or implant radiation) -Adjuvant treatment (after surgery)-radiation is given to kill small areas of the cancer that are hard to see -Neoadjuvant treatment (before surgery)-radiation shrinks the tumor if the size or location of the tumor makes surgery difficult -Radiation can be used to alleviate symptoms of advanced cancer including: intestinal blockage, bleeding, or pain. -Main use for colon cancer: when cancer has attached to an internal organ or the lining of the abdomen, radiation is used to insure that all cancer cells left behind from surgery are destroyed -Main use for rectal cancer: radiation is given to prevent cancer from coming back to the place of origin, and to treat local recurrences causing symptoms of pain -Radiation is seldom used for metastatic colon cancer http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/839/15012869.JPG
Slide 56 - Treatment-Radiation Therapy External Radiation: -used for people with colon or rectal cancer -treatments given 5 days a week for several weeks -each treatment last a few minutes and is similar to having an x-ray taken -a different approach for some cases of rectal cancer involves the radiation aimed through the anus to reach the rectum Internal Radiation: -small pellets, or seeds, of radioactive material are placed next to or directly into the cancer -sometimes used in treatment of people with rectal cancer, especially the sick or elderly that would not be able to withstand surgery http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/9805.jpg
Slide 57 - Treatment-Chemotherapy Chemotherapy: -the use of cancer-fighting drugs injected intravenously or orally -drugs enter the bloodstream and reach the entire body -is a useful treatment for metastasized cancers -chemo following surgery increases the survival rate for some stages -chemo helps relieve symptoms of advanced cancer -regional chemo: drugs are injected into the artery which leads to cancerous areas (may be fewer side effects) Anti-angiogenesis approach Binding (0-8 hours 2. Plug Rupture, Drug Release after injection) (12-48 hours) 3. Pore Formation-cell lysis and death (12-48 hours) http://www.leadershipmedica.com/scientifico/sciesett02/scientificaita/7ferrari/nanopores_7ferrfig2.gif
Slide 58 - Treatment-Chemotherapy (Chemo Drugs)
Slide 59 - Treatment-Immunotherapy Immunotherapy: -use of natural substances produced by the immune system -substances may kill cancer cells, slow their growth, or activate patient’s immune system -antibodies are produced by the immune system to help fight infections -monoclonal antibodies (made in lab), attack cancer cells -2 new monoclonal antibodies approved by the US FDA: -Bevacizumab: works by preventing growth of new blood vessels that supply tumor cells with blood, oxygen and nutrients needed to grow. Used with chemo as first line of treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic colon or rectal cancer. -Cetuximab: works by binding to a special site on the cell surface which stops the cell’s growth and promotes cell death. Used alone or in combination with chemotherapy agent as a second line of treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic colon or rectal cancer whose disease is no longer responding to irinotecan, or who cannot take it
Slide 60 - Treatment-Side Effects
Slide 61 - Summary: Clinical Trials Clinical Trials Definition Phase I Phase II Phase III http://www.acponline.org/graphics/observer/jun2006/cancer_chart.jpg
Slide 62 - Clinical Trials Phase I: -main purpose is to find the best way to give a new treatment and what is a safe dosage -treatment is well tested in the lab and in animal studies, but side effects in patients is not completely known Phase II: -studies designed to see if drug works -patients are given the highest dose that doesn’t cause severe side effects (from phase I) and closely observed for an effect on the cancer or potential side effects Phase III: -involves studies with large numbers of patients -have a control group (given the standard, most accepted treatment) and other groups that receive the new treatment -patients are closely watched -if side effects are too severe or if one group has had much better results than the study will be prematurely stopped Types of Clinical Trials: a treatment is studied in 3 phases before it is eligible for approval by the FDA Clinical Trials: -studies of promising new or experimental treatments in patients -only done when there is reason to believe that the treatment being studied may be of value to the patient
Slide 63 - Summary: Current State of Colorectal Research Current State of Colorectal Research Chemoprevention Genetics Early detection Immunotherapy Tumor growth factors
Slide 64 - The Current State of Colorectal Cancer Research The goal of scientists is to find methods of prevention, as well as the improvement of treatment options
Slide 65 - References www.cancer.gov www.cancer.org www.cdc.gov www.nccn.org Bazensky, Ivy; Shoobridge-Moran, Candice; Yoder, Linda H. Colorectal Cancer: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Screening Guidelines. MEDSURG Nursing. 2007; 16: 46-51. Boyle, Peter; Leon, Maria Elena. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer. British Medical Bulletin. 2002; 54: 1-25. Keku, Temitope O.; Lund, Pauline Kay; Galanko, Joseph; Simmons, James G.; Woosley, John T.; Sandler, Robert S. Insulin Resistance, Apoptosis, and Colorectal Adenoma Risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2005; 14(9): 2076-2081. Larsson, Susanna C.; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja. A Prospective Study of Dietary Folate Intake and Risk of colorectal Cancer: Modification by Caffeine Intake and Cigarette Smoking. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2005; 14(3): 740-742. Lynch, Henry T.; Lynch, Jane F.; Lynch, Patrick M.; Attard, Thomas. Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: molecular genetics, genetic counseling, diagnosis and management. Familial Cancer. www.springerlink.com/content/b274217056r59101/fulltext.html. Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I.; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Waye, Jerome; Harpaz, Noam; Hibshoosh, Hanina. Tobacco, alcohol, and p53 over expression in early colorectal neoplasia. BMC Cancer. 2003; 3: 29.