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Slide 1 - Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technologies and Business Implications B. Ramamurthy & K. Madurai bina@buffalo.edu & kumar.madurai@ctg.com This talks is partially supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE: #0920335, OCI: #1041280 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 1
Slide 2 - Outline of the talk Introduction to cloud context Technology context: multi-core, virtualization, 64-bit processors, parallel computing models, big-data storages… Cloud models: IaaS (Amazon AWS), PaaS (Microsoft Azure), SaaS (Google App Engine) Demonstration of cloud capabilities Cloud models Data and Computing models: MapReduce Graph processing using amazon elastic mapreduce A case-study of real business application of the cloud Questions and Answers 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 2
Slide 3 - Speakers’ Background in cloud computing Bina: Has two current NSF (National Science Foundation of USA) awards related to cloud computing: 2009-2012: Data-Intensive computing education: CCLI Phase 2: $250K 2010-2012: Cloud-enabled Evolutionary Genetics Testbed: OCI-CI-TEAM: $250K Faculty at the CSE department at University at Buffalo. Kumar: Principal Consultant at CTG Currently heading a large semantic technology business initiative that leverages cloud computing Adjunct Professor at School of Management, University at Buffalo. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 3
Slide 4 - Introduction: A Golden Era in Computing 6/2/2011 Cloud Futures 2011, Redmond, WA 4
Slide 5 - Cloud Concepts, Enabling-technologies, and Models: The Cloud Context 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 5
Slide 6 - Evolution of Internet Computing Publish Inform Interact Integrate Transact Discover (intelligence) Automate (discovery) time scale Social media and networking Semantic discovery Data-intensive HPC, cloud web deep web Data marketplace and analytics 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 6
Slide 7 - Top Ten Largest Databases Ref: http://www.focus.com/fyi/operations/10-largest-databases-in-the-world/ 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 7
Slide 8 - Challenges Alignment with the needs of the business / user / non-computer specialists / community and society Need to address the scalability issue: large scale data, high performance computing, automation, response time, rapid prototyping, and rapid time to production Need to effectively address (i) ever shortening cycle of obsolescence, (ii) heterogeneity and (iii) rapid changes in requirements Transform data from diverse sources into intelligence and deliver intelligence to right people/user/systems What about providing all this in a cost-effective manner? 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 8
Slide 9 - Enter the cloud Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity grid. The cloud computing is a culmination of numerous attempts at large scale computing with seamless access to virtually limitless resources. on-demand computing, utility computing, ubiquitous computing, autonomic computing, platform computing, edge computing, elastic computing, grid computing, … 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 9
Slide 10 - “Grid Technology: A slide from my presentation to Industry (2005) Emerging enabling technology. Natural evolution of distributed systems and the Internet. Middleware supporting network of systems to facilitate sharing, standardization and openness. Infrastructure and application model dealing with sharing of compute cycles, data, storage and other resources. Publicized by prominent industries as on-demand computing, utility computing, etc. Move towards delivering “computing” to masses similar to other utilities (electricity and voice communication).” Now, Hmmm…sounds like the definition for cloud computing!!!!! 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 10
Slide 11 - It is a changed world now… Explosive growth in applications: biomedical informatics, space exploration, business analytics, web 2.0 social networking: YouTube, Facebook Extreme scale content generation: e-science and e-business data deluge Extraordinary rate of digital content consumption: digital gluttony: Apple iPhone, iPad, Amazon Kindle Exponential growth in compute capabilities: multi-core, storage, bandwidth, virtual machines (virtualization) Very short cycle of obsolescence in technologies: Windows Vista Windows 7; Java versions; CC#; Phython Newer architectures: web services, persistence models, distributed file systems/repositories (Google, Hadoop), multi-core, wireless and mobile Diverse knowledge and skill levels of the workforce You simply cannot manage this complex situation with your traditional IT infrastructure: 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 11
Slide 12 - Answer: The Cloud Computing? Typical requirements and models: platform (PaaS), software (SaaS), infrastructure (IaaS), Services-based application programming interface (API) A cloud computing environment can provide one or more of these requirements for a cost Pay as you go model of business When using a public cloud the model is similar to renting a property than owning one. An organization could also maintain a private cloud and/or use both. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 12
Slide 13 - Enabling Technologies 64-bit processor Multi-core architectures Virtualization: bare metal, hypervisor. … VM0 VM1 VMn Web-services, SOA, WS standards Services interface Cloud applications: data-intensive, compute-intensive, storage-intensive Storage Models: S3, BigTable, BlobStore, ... Bandwidth WS 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 13
Slide 14 - Common Features of Cloud Providers Management Console and Monitoring tools & multi-level security 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 14
Slide 15 - Windows Azure Enterprise-level on-demand capacity builder Fabric of cycles and storage available on-request for a cost You have to use Azure API to work with the infrastructure offered by Microsoft Significant features: web role, worker role , blob storage, table and drive-storage 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 15
Slide 16 - Amazon EC2 Amazon EC2 is one large complex web service. EC2 provided an API for instantiating computing instances with any of the operating systems supported. It can facilitate computations through Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) for various other models. Signature features: S3, Cloud Management Console, MapReduce Cloud, Amazon Machine Image (AMI) Excellent distribution, load balancing, cloud monitoring tools 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 16
Slide 17 - Google App Engine This is more a web interface for a development environment that offers a one stop facility for design, development and deployment Java and Python-based applications in Java, Go and Python. Google offers the same reliability, availability and scalability at par with Google’s own applications Interface is software programming based Comprehensive programming platform irrespective of the size (small or large) Signature features: templates and appspot, excellent monitoring and management console 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 17
Slide 18 - Demos Amazon AWS: EC2 & S3 (among the many infrastructure services) Linux machine Windows machine A three-tier enterprise application Google app Engine Eclipse plug-in for GAE Development and deployment of an application Windows Azure Storage: blob store/container MS Visual Studio Azure development and production environment 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 18
Slide 19 - Cloud Programming Models 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 19
Slide 20 - The Context: Big-data Data mining huge amounts of data collected in a wide range of domains from astronomy to healthcare has become essential for planning and performance. We are in a knowledge economy. Data is an important asset to any organization Discovery of knowledge; Enabling discovery; annotation of data Complex computational models No single environment is good enough: need elastic, on-demand capacities We are looking at newer Programming models, and Supporting algorithms and data structures. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 20
Slide 21 - Google File System Internet introduced a new challenge in the form web logs, web crawler’s data: large scale “peta scale” But observe that this type of data has an uniquely different characteristic than your transactional or the “customer order” data : “write once read many (WORM)” ; Privacy protected healthcare and patient information; Historical financial data; Other historical data Google exploited this characteristics in its Google file system (GFS) 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 21
Slide 22 - What is Hadoop? At Google MapReduce operation are run on a special file system called Google File System (GFS) that is highly optimized for this purpose. GFS is not open source. Doug Cutting and others at Yahoo! reverse engineered the GFS and called it Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The software framework that supports HDFS, MapReduce and other related entities is called the project Hadoop or simply Hadoop. This is open source and distributed by Apache. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 22
Slide 23 - Fault tolerance Failure is the norm rather than exception A HDFS instance may consist of thousands of server machines, each storing part of the file system’s data. Since we have huge number of components and that each component has non-trivial probability of failure means that there is always some component that is non-functional. Detection of faults and quick, automatic recovery from them is a core architectural goal of HDFS. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 23
Slide 24 - HDFS Architecture Namenode B replication Rack1 Rack2 Client Blocks Datanodes Datanodes Client Write Read Metadata ops Metadata(Name, replicas..) (/home/foo/data,6. .. Block ops 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 24
Slide 25 - Hadoop Distributed File System Application Local file system Master node Name Nodes HDFS Client HDFS Server Block size: 2K Block size: 128M Replicated 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 25
Slide 26 - What is MapReduce? MapReduce is a programming model Google has used successfully is processing its “big-data” sets (~ 20000 peta bytes per day) A map function extracts some intelligence from raw data. A reduce function aggregates according to some guides the data output by the map. Users specify the computation in terms of a map and a reduce function, Underlying runtime system automatically parallelizes the computation across large-scale clusters of machines, and Underlying system also handles machine failures, efficient communications, and performance issues. -- Reference: Dean, J. and Ghemawat, S. 2008. MapReduce: simplified data processing on large clusters. Communication of ACM 51, 1 (Jan. 2008), 107-113. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 26
Slide 27 - Classes of problems “mapreducable” Benchmark for comparing: Jim Gray’s challenge on data-intensive computing. Ex: “Sort” Google uses it for wordcount, adwords, pagerank, indexing data. Simple algorithms such as grep, text-indexing, reverse indexing Bayesian classification: data mining domain Facebook uses it for various operations: demographics Financial services use it for analytics Astronomy: Gaussian analysis for locating extra-terrestrial objects. Expected to play a critical role in semantic web and in web 3.0 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 27
Slide 28 - Count Count Count Large scale data splits Parse-hash Parse-hash Parse-hash Parse-hash Map pair Reducers (say, Count) P-0000 P-0001 P-0002 , count1 , count2 ,count3 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 28
Slide 29 - MapReduce Engine MapReduce requires a distributed file system and an engine that can distribute, coordinate, monitor and gather the results. Hadoop provides that engine through (the file system we discussed earlier) and the JobTracker + TaskTracker system. JobTracker is simply a scheduler. TaskTracker is assigned a Map or Reduce (or other operations); Map or Reduce run on node and so is the TaskTracker; each task is run on its own JVM on a node. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 29
Slide 30 - Demos Word count application: a simple foundation for text-mining; with a small text corpus of inaugural speeches by US presidents Graph analytics is the core of analytics involving linked structures (about 110 nodes): shortest path 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 30
Slide 31 - A Case-study in Business: Cloud Strategies 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 31
Slide 32 - Predictive Quality Project Overview Identify special causes that relate to bad outcomes for the quality-related parameters of the products and visually inspected defects Complex upstream process conditions and dependencies making the problem difficult to solve using traditional statistical / analytical methods Determine the optimal process settings that can increase the yield and reduce defects through predictive quality assurance Potential savings huge as the cost of rework and rejects are very high Problem / Motivation: Solution: Use ontology to model the complex manufacturing processes and utilize semantic technologies to provide key insights into how outcomes and causes are related Develop a rich internet application that allows the user to evaluate process outcomes and conditions at a high level and drill down to specific areas of interest to address performance issues 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 32
Slide 33 - Why Cloud Computing for this Project Well-suited for incubation of new technologies Semantic technologies still evolving Use of Prototyping and Extreme Programming Server and Storage requirements not completely known Technologies used (TopBraid, Tomcat) not part of emerging or core technologies supported by corporate IT Scalability on demand Development and implementation on a private cloud 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 33
Slide 34 - Public Cloud vs. Private Cloud Rationale for Private Cloud: Security and privacy of business data was a big concern Potential for vendor lock-in SLA’s required for real-time performance and reliability Cost savings of the shared model achieved because of the multiple projects involving semantic technologies that the company is actively developing 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 34
Slide 35 - Cloud Computing for the Enterprise What should IT Do Revise cost model to utility-based computing: CPU/hour, GB/day etc. Include hidden costs for management, training Different cloud models for different applications - evaluate Use for prototyping applications and learn Link it to current strategic plans for Services-Oriented Architecture, Disaster Recovery, etc. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 35
Slide 36 - References & useful links Amazon AWS: http://aws.amazon.com/free/ AWS Cost Calculator: http://calculator.s3.amazonaws.com/calc5.html Windows Azure: http://www.azurepilot.com/ Google App Engine (GAE): http://code.google.com/appengine/docs/whatisgoogleappengine.html Graph Analytics: http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~jimmylin/Cloud9/docs/content/Lin_Schatz_MLG2010.pdf For miscellaneous information: http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~bina 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 36
Slide 37 - Summary We illustrated cloud concepts and demonstrated the cloud capabilities through simple applications We discussed the features of the Hadoop File System, and mapreduce to handle big-data sets. We also explored some real business issues in adoption of cloud. Cloud is indeed an impactful technology that is sure to transform computing in business. 6/23/2010 Wipro Chennai 2011 37