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Slide 1 - Cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart disease By Melissa Bess Nutrition and Health Education Specialist University of Missouri Extension FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS 06/2007
Slide 2 - Introduction About cholesterol LDL vs. HDL Triglycerides Healthy levels Common misconceptions What affects cholesterol? Why does it matter? Prevention of high cholesterol
Slide 3 - Introduction (continued) About blood pressure Common misconceptions Controlling high blood pressure Heart disease risk factors
Slide 4 - About cholesterol Soft, fat-like, waxy substance Bloodstream and cells Needed for cell membranes and hormones and to make vitamin D Comes from 2 sources Body produces it (mostly genetic) in liver (1000 mg day) Food sources (animal products – meats, poultry, fish, eggs, butter, whole milk, and cheese, not from plant sources) (100 – 500 mg day) Foods with trans fats or saturated fats may cause the body to produce more cholesterol
Slide 5 - About cholesterol Must be transported through blood Carriers are called lipoproteins Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Lipoprotein = protein + fat LDL, more fat, less protein HDL, more protein, less fat
Slide 6 - LDL vs. HDL LDL = “bad” Too much can clog arteries by forming plaque Atherosclerosis can cause heart attack or stroke
Slide 7 - LDL vs. HDL HDL = “good” Tends to carry cholesterol away from arteries and back to liver May also remove excess cholesterol from plaque in arteries, slows buildup
Slide 8 - Triglycerides Form of fat Also made in body (body fat stored as triglyceride) and from food Help transport dietary fat, metabolism Trigger liver to make more cholesterol, rising LDL and total cholesterol
Slide 9 - Healthy Levels Total cholesterol Optimal – under 200 mg/dL Borderline high risk – 200-239 mg/dL High risk – 240 mg/dL and up LDL Optimal – less than 100 mg/dL Near/Above optimal – 100-129 mg/dL Borderline high – 130- 159 mg/dL High – 160 – 189 mg/dL Very high – 190 mg/dL Source: National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Slide 10 - Healthy Levels HDL Low - less than 40 mg/dL High – above 60 mg/dL (may lower risk for heart disease) Women tend to have higher HDL due to estrogen (needs to be over 50 mg/dL) Triglycerides Normal – less than 150 mg/dL Borderline high – 150 – 199 mg/dL High – above 200 mg/dL Source: National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Slide 11 - Common misconceptions Using margarine instead of butter will help lower my cholesterol Thin people don’t have to worry about high cholesterol If a label lists no cholesterol, it’s a “heart-healthy” choice Eggs – good or bad? Women don’t need to worry about cholesterol Only middle-aged people should have their cholesterol checked
Slide 12 - What affects cholesterol? Diet Poly and monounsaturated fats may help lower cholesterol when used in place of saturated fats, but still limit High carbs, excessive alcohol may increase triglycerides Soluble fiber may lower LDL, not HDL Weight Physical activity Age Gender Heredity
Slide 13 - Why does it matter? Coronary heart disease is caused by atherosclerosis Single leading cause of death The higher LDL you have plus risk factors increases risk for heart attack Smoking High Blood pressure Low HDL Family history of early heart disease Age
Slide 14 - Prevention of high cholesterol Get it checked Watch fats, eat healthy Consume less than 300 mg of cholesterol a day Be active Quit smoking Some may need medication Lipitor, Crestor, Zocor Vytorin Zetia
Slide 15 - Blood pressure 1 in 3 adults has hypertension No symptoms, nearly 1/3 of those people don’t know they have it No known cause 2 forces Blood pumps to arteries and through circulatory system Arteries resist blood flow Arteries elastic, stretchy Heart beats 60-80 times a minute
Slide 16 - Blood pressure Systolic (top) – heart is beating Diastolic (bottom) – heart resting Normal – 120/80 mm Hg Pre-hypertensive – 120-139/80-89 mm Hg Hypertensive – 140/90 mm Hg May take several readings “White coat hypertension” Hypertension increases risk for heart disease and stroke Number 1 controllable risk factor for stroke
Slide 17 - Blood pressure Sodium/salt Holds excess fluid in body, heart has to work harder Potassium Blunts effects of salt on blood pressure
Slide 18 - Common misconceptions Symptoms of high blood pressure include nervousness, sweating, and difficulty sleeping High cholesterol = high blood pressure Everyone has high blood pressure, I don’t need to worry Women don’t need to worry about high blood pressure
Slide 19 - Controlling hypertension Reduce fat (particularly saturated fat) Stop smoking Cut back on alcohol Be active May need medication Stress management
Slide 20 - Heart disease risk factors Uncontrollable Age Male gender Heredity (including race) – African Americans = higher blood pressure. Also higher among other races Controllable Smoking (2-4x higher than non-smokers) High cholesterol (high HDL can be positive risk factor) High blood pressure
Slide 21 - Heart disease risk factors Controllable Physical inactivity Obesity/overweight (especially in abdominal area) Diabetes Other factors Stress Too much alcohol Moderate drinkers = less risk than non-drinkers (may increase HDL cholesterol)
Slide 22 - Phytonutrients Soy protein may reduce risk of heart disease Especially when replacing foods high in saturated fat Plant sterols/stanols Found naturally in fruits/veggies, plant oils may lower LDL Omega-3 fatty acids Two weekly servings of fish may be heart healthy Folic Acid May lower homocysteine levels Antioxidants
Slide 23 - Questions?? Activity time!