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Slide 1 - Cell Biology
Slide 2 - Outline Cell Structure and Organelles Cell Molecular Components Water and Chemical properties Cell Membrane Osmotic Properties of cells Cell molecule transportation
Slide 3 - Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Slide 4 - Structure of Animal Cells
Slide 5 - Cell Organelles Nucleus 1 Nuclear envelope Chromatin and DNA Nucleolus Mitochondria Double membrane Mitochondrial (maternal) DNA “Power House” of the cell Food converted into energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Consumes Oxygen, produces CO2
Slide 6 - What is ATP? Nucleotides “Carry” chemical energy from easily hydrolyzed phosphoanhydride bonds Combine to form coenzymes (coenzyme A (CoA) Used as signaling molecules (cyclic AMP)
Slide 7 - Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Site where cell membrane and exported material is made Ribosomes (rough) Make protiens Smooth ER- lipids Golgi Apparatus Receives and modifies Directs new materials Lysosomes Intracellular digestion Releases nutrients Breakdown of waste
Slide 8 - Cell Organelles Peroxisomes Hydrogen Peroxide generated and degraded Cytosol Water based gel Chemical reactions Cytoskeleton Filaments (actin, intermediate and microtubules) Movement of organelles and cell Structure/strengthen cell Vessicles Material transport Membrane, ER, Golgi derived vessicles
Slide 9 - Organic Molecules of Cells Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids
Slide 10 - Proteins Most diverse and complex macromolecules in the cell Used for structure, function and information Made of linearly arranged amino acid residues “folded” up with “active” regions
Slide 11 - Types of Proteins 1) Enzymes – catalyzes covalent bond breakage or formation 2) Structural – collagen, elastin, keratin, etc. 3) Motility – actin, myosin, tubulin, etc. 4) Regulatory – bind to DNA to switch genes on or off 5) Storage – ovalbumin, casein, etc. 6) Hormonal – insulin, nerve growth factor (NGF), etc. 7) Receptors – hormone and neurotransmitter receptors 8) Transport – carries small molecules or irons 9) Special purpose proteins – green fluorescent protein, etc.
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Slide 13 - Humans have around 30,000 genes. Each cell has the full set of the human genes but only makes specific protein. Why? Implication in tissue engineering
Slide 14 - Hydrophobic molecules Energy storage, membrane components, signal molecules Triglycerides (fat), phospholipids, waxes, sterols Lipids Sugars, storage (glycogen, starch), Structural polymers (cellulose and chitin) Major substrates of energy metabolism Carbohydrates
Slide 15 - Nucleic Acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA encode genetic information for synthesis of all proteins Blue print
Slide 16 - Water Molecule Polarity of H2O allows H bonding Water disassociates into H+ and OH- Imbalance of H+ and OH- give rise to “acids and bases” - Measured by the pH pH influence charges of amino acid groups on protein, causing a specific activity Buffering systems maintain intracellular and extracellular pH
Slide 17 - Hydrophobic “Water-fearing” Molecule is not polar, cannot form H bonds and is “repelled” from water Insoluble Hydrophillic “Water-loving” Molecule is polar, forms H bonds with water Soluble Water Molecule
Slide 18 - Cell Membrane
Slide 19 - Cell Membrane Composition Plasma membrane encloses cell and cell organelles Made of hydrophobic and hydrophillic components Semi-permeable and fluid-like “lipid bilayer”
Slide 20 - Integral proteins interact with “lipid bilayer” Passive transport pores and channels Active transport pumps and carriers Membrane-linked enzymes, receptors and transducers Sterols stabilize the lipid bilayer Cholesterol Cell Membrane Composition
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Slide 22 - Lipid Molecules
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Slide 25 - Osmosis (Greek, osmos “to push”) Movement of water down its concentration gradient Hydrostatic pressure Movement of water causes fluid mechanical pressure Pressure gradient across a semi-permeable membrane Osmotic Properties of Cells
Slide 26 - Hydrostatic Pressure
Slide 27 - Donnan Equilibrium Semi-permeable membrane Deionized water Add Ions Balanced charges among both sides
Slide 28 - Add anion More Cl- leaves I to balance charges Donnan Equilibrium Diffusion
Slide 29 - Ionic Steady State Potaasium cations most abundant inside the cell Chloride anions ions most abundant outside the cell Sodium cations most abundant outside the cell
Slide 30 - Donnan Equilibrium [K+]i [K+]ii [Cl-]ii [Cl-]i =
Slide 31 - Erythrocyte Cell Equilibrium No osmotic pressure - cell is in an isotonic solution - Water does not cross membrane Increased [Osmotic] in cytoplasm - cell is in an hypotonic solution - Water enters cell, swelling Decreased [Osmotic] in cytoplasm - cell is in an hypotonic solution - Water leaves cell, shrinking
Slide 32 - Cell Lysis Using hypotonic solution Or interfering with Na+ equilibrium causes cells to burst This can be used to researchers’ advantage when isolating cells
Slide 33 - Molecules Related to Cell Permeability Depends on Molecules size (electrolytes more permeable) Polarity (hydrophillic) Charge (anion vs. cation) Water vs. lipid solubility
Slide 34 - Cell Permeability Passive transport is carrier mediated Facilitated diffusion Solute molecule combines with a “carrier” or transporter Electrochemical gradients determines the direction Integral membrane proteins form channels
Slide 35 - Crossing the Membrane Simple or passive diffusion Passive transport Channels or pores Facilitated transport Assisted by membrane-floating proteins Active transport pumps and carriers ATP is required Enzymes and reactions may be required
Slide 36 - Modes of Transport
Slide 37 - Carrier-Mediated Transport Integral protein binds to the solute and undergo a conformational change to transport the solute across the membrane T
Slide 38 - Channel Mediated Transport Proteins form aqueous pores allowing specific solutes to pass across the membrane Allow much faster transport than carrier proteins
Slide 39 - Coupled Transport Some solutes “go along for the ride” with a carrier protien or an ionophore Can also be a Channel coupled transport
Slide 40 - Three main mechanisms: coupled carriers: a solute is driven uphill compensated by a different solute being transported downhill (secondary) ATP-driven pump: uphill transport is powered by ATP hydrolysis (primary) Light-driven pump: uphill transport is powered by energy from photons (bacteriorhodopsin) Active Transport
Slide 41 - Active Transport Energy is required
Slide 42 - Against their electrochemical gradients For every 3 ATP, 3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in Na+/K+ Pump Actively transport Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
Slide 43 - Na+ exchange (symport) is also used in epithelial cells in the gut to drive the absorption of glucose from the lumen, and eventually into the bloodstream (by passive transport) Na+/K+ Pump
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Slide 45 - About 1/3 of ATP in an animal cell is used to power sodium-potassium pumps Na+/K+ Pump In electrically active nerve cells, which use Na+ and K+ gradients to propagate electrical signals, up to 2/3 of the ATP is used to power these pumps
Slide 46 - Endocytosis and Exocytosis Exocytosis - membrane vesicle fuses with cell membrane, releases enclosed material to extracellular space. Endocytosis - cell membrane invaginates, pinches in, creates vesicle enclosing contents
Slide 47 - Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Slide 48 - The Cytoskeleton • The cytoskeleton, a component of structural functions, is critical to cell motility. • Cells have three types of filaments that are distinguishable by the diameter. • Actin filaments (microfilaments): 5-9 nm diameter with twisted strands.
Slide 49 - Microtubules: hollow tube-like structure ~ 24 nm diameter Intermediate Filaments: 9-nm diameter
Slide 50 - Cell Locomotion Why do we care about cell locomotion? Host defense Angiogenesis Wound healing Cancer metastasis Tissue engineering Steps: Protrusion Adhesion Traction
Slide 51 - External signals must dictate the direction of cell migration. Cell migration is initiated by the formation of large membrane protrusion. Video microscopy showed that G-actin polymerizes to F-actin. (Drugs can alter this process). Actin exists as a globular monomer (G-actin) and; A filamentous polymer (F-actin) protein. The addition of Mg2+, K+ or Na+ to a solution of G-actin induces the formation of F-actin and this process is reversible. Elastic mechanical property of actin filament.
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