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Slide 1 - 1 AUTOMOBILE HISTORY First automobile developed in 1860’s in Europe. By 1900 cars gaining some reliability. All cars are hand made costing $10,000.00 Henry Ford’s better ideas: Interchangeable parts Mass production using an assembly line
Slide 2 - 2 MASS PRODUCTION OF AUTOMOBILES Mass production reduces the cost of automobiles to $200.00. There are now 200,000,000 vehicles in the U.S. alone.
Slide 3 - 3 Four Basic Parts of Vehicles Engine or power plant Chassis or framework Drive Train Body
Slide 4 - 4 Engine Systems Compression system Valve train Fuel system Ignition system Lubricating system Cooling system Starting system Charging system Emission controls Exhaust system
Slide 5 - 5 Engine Block & Head(s) Compression system lower end Harnesses the power of burning gasoline Valve train top end Lets in and out the fuel charges to be burned
Slide 6 - 6 Fuel System Old cars used a carbureted system. Cars now use fuel injection. The purpose of the fuel system is to store, move and deliver the fuel and air in the proper proportion to the engine.
Slide 7 - 7 Ignition System Ignition systems are electronically computer controlled The purpose is to deliver a high voltage spark (20,000 volts) to cylinders at the right time to ignite the fuel. Spark plugs /wires /coil/distributor/COIL PACK
Slide 8 - 8 Computer Recent innovation Controls Fuel, ignition, Emission suspension
Slide 9 - 9 Lubrication System Force feed or pressure fed system Via an oil pump Provides lubrication and protection for all the metal parts inside the engine Oil pump/ pan galleries
Slide 10 - 10 Cooling System Liquid cooled system Provides protection from the excessive heat which builds up inside the cylinder Radiator, water jacket, hoses, thermostat, heater core, fan
Slide 11 - 11 Starting System Uses a battery and electric starting motor (cranking motor) to crank over the engine for starting Battery Cranking motor Solenoid Key switch Wires
Slide 12 - 12 Charging System The charging system has two functions: 1 – To recharge the battery after starting. 2 – To provide all the electricity for the vehicle while the engine is running. The battery provides power while the engine is not running Battery/alternator/voltage regulator
Slide 13 - 13 Exhaust System Removes gases from engine Quiets vehicle Provides back pressure Exhaust manifold Crossover Tail pipe Muffler Resonator
Slide 14 - 14 Emission Controls To clean up the air pollution caused by the automobile. Capture any vapor which might escape the the fuel tank and engines crankcase. Clean up exhaust for any un burnt fuel, carbon monoxide, or oxides of nitrogen. Many types of devices are employed. PCV/Catalytic convertor/gas cap/EGR
Slide 15 - 15 Fuel Tank Vapor Recovery Captures the vapor of gasoline from the fuel tank. The charcoal canister holds them . When the engine runs the vapors are sucked into the engine and burned.
Slide 16 - 16 Catalytic Converter One of the most important emission controls on the car. Literally burns up pollution in the exhaust system.
Slide 17 - 17 Automobile Bodies Most made of stamped steel parts A few cars made of aluminum (NSX Cadillac Allenta) Some use composite materials (Saturn or GM Minivan)
Slide 18 - 18 Chassis or Frame Under lying structure of all vehicles Three types of frame: 1 – Full frame 2 – Unitized frame called unibody 3 – Space frame
Slide 19 - 19 Full Frame Chassis Uses welded steel alloy metal C-channel or box frame construction Note engine cradle in front and rear axle hump in rear Used on large cars and most all trucks Body made in separate unit and bolted to chassis
Slide 20 - 20 Unitized Body Construction Called Unibody All body and frame parts welded together Light weight but strong structurally Most cars use this construction
Slide 21 - 21 Space Frame Construction Newest type of construction Hybrid unibody Used on race cars first but now used in passenger cars Many use plastic fenders and body panels
Slide 22 - 22 Chassis Related Systems Braking system Suspension system Steering system
Slide 23 - 23 Braking System The purpose of the braking system is of course, to stop the car. Brakes are used on all wheels and is hydraulically operated. Two common types of brake assemblies are used. Disc Brakes Drum Brakes
Slide 24 - 24 Disc Brakes Uses a rotor that spins with the wheel and a stationary caliper to press friction material against the spinning rotor. Used on most all front brakes and some rear brakes.
Slide 25 - 25 Drum Brakes Uses a drum which spins with the wheel. Stationary brake shoes are pressed out from the inside to cause friction. Used on rear brakes of many cars.
Slide 26 - 26 ABS Anti-Lock Braking System Helps driver stop under control Keeps brakes from locking up Pulses brakes Enables car to be turned *Does not replace hydraulic brakes Does not make vehicle stop faster Does not work if brake petal is pumped
Slide 27 - 27 Suspension System Uses springs and shock absorbers to provide a good ride and improved handling. Coil & leaf springs, torsion bars and air suspension are all used. Most shock absorbers are hydraulic or gas operated. Stop bouncing action Struts
Slide 28 - 28 Independent Suspension Allows each wheel to move up and down independently with out effect from the opposite wheel. Used on most all front wheels and many rear wheels now.
Slide 29 - 29 Straight Axle Wheels are held together on a common axle. Very rugged but poor on handling. Used mostly on the rear wheels.
Slide 30 - 30 Steering System Two types used: Conventional or parallelogram steering used on larger cars and trucks. Rack and pinion steering used on most cars. Conventional on trucks, SUV, BIG VEHICLES
Slide 31 - 31 Drive train Takes the engines torque and sends to the drive wheels. Major types are: front wheel drive, rear wheel drive, four wheel drive and all wheel drive. Major components of all drive trains: clutch, transmission, differential, and drive shaft(s).
Slide 32 - 32 Drive Train Components Basic purpose is to get the engines torque to the wheels. Clutches used with manual transmissions a torque converter used with automatics. Disconnects engine from transmission Transmission/transaxle Drive shafts and drive axles. Differentials
Slide 33 - 33 Front Wheel Drive All drive train components under the hood (transaxle) Reduces weight and size of vehicle Good traction in rain and snow
Slide 34 - 34 Front Wheel Drive
Slide 35 - 35 Rear Wheel Drive Components spread from front to rear Transmission Heavier than FWD cars Poor handling in rain and snow Better traction for performance purposes
Slide 36 - 36 Four Wheel Drive 4X4 Used primarily on trucks Drive all four wheel when engaged Heavy, poor fuel economy Excellent traction on rain, snow or off road conditions
Slide 37 - 37 All Wheel Drive Front wheel drive power train connected to a drive shaft in the transaxle running to a conventional rear axle assembly.
Slide 38 - 38 Identifying Vehicles Reading the V.I.N. 17 digit code located at the lower left corner of the windshield. On Firewall