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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Antenatal Care Dr. Ahmed Al Harbi Obstetrics/Gynecology Consultant
Slide 2 - Aims Of Antenatal Care To prevent, detect and manage those factors that adversely affect the health of the baby To provide advice, reassurance, education and support for the woman and her family To deal with the ‘minor ailments’ of pregnancy To provide general health screening
Slide 3 - Classification OfAntenatal Care Shared Care Hospital Maternity Team General Practitioner (GP) Community Midwives
Slide 4 - Community-BaseCare
Slide 5 - Hospital-BasedCare
Slide 6 - Advice, Reassurance & Education Reassurance & explanation on pregnancy symptoms: Nausea Heartburn Constipation Shortness Of Breath Dizziness Swelling Back-ache Abdominal Discomfort Headaches
Slide 7 - Information regarding: Smoking Alcohol Consumption Drugs (Both LEGAL and ILLEGAL)
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Slide 11 - Confirmation of the pregnancy The symptom of the pregnancy Breast tenderness Nausea Amenorrhea Urinary Frequency Positive urinary or serum pregnancy test are usually sufficient confirmation of a pregnancy. Dating Pregnancy, confirms the pregnancy and accurately dates it.
Slide 12 - Dating Pregnancy Menstrual EDD Dating by ultrasound Benefits of a dating scan: Accurate dating women with irregular menstrual cycles or poor recollection of LMP. Reduced incidence in induction of labor for ‘prolonged pregnancy’ Maximizing the potential for serum screening to detect fetal abnormalities Early detection of multiple pregnancies Detection of otherwise asymptomatic failed intrauterine pregnancy
Slide 13 - Booking History Past Medial History Past Obstetric History Previous Gynaecological History Family History Social History
Slide 14 - Booking Examination Full Physical Examination: Cardiovascular Respiratory Systems Abdominal Full Pelvic Examination Full Breast Examination
Slide 15 - Examination for most healthy women : Accurate measurement of blood pressure Abdominal examination to record the size of the uterus Recognition of any abdominal scars indicative of previous surgery
Slide 16 - Measurement of height and weight for calculation of the BMI. Women with a low BMI are at greater risk of fetal growth restriction and obese women are at greater risk of fetal growth restriction and obese women are at significantly greater risk of most obstetric complications, including gestitational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, need for emergency caesarean section and anaesthetic difficulties.
Slide 17 - Urine examaniation: asymptomatic bacteriuria is more likely to ascend and cause pyelonephritis in pregnancy. This causes significant maternal morbidity, but also predisposes to pregnancy loss and preterm labour. All women at booking should wither have a midstream urine sent for culture or be tested with a dipstick which recognizes nitrates, the presence of which sensitivity predicts the presence of significant bacteria.
Slide 18 - Booking Investigation Full Blood Count Blood Group & Red Cell Antibodies Women found to be rhesus negative will be offered prophylactic anti-D administration at 28 and 34 weeks’ gestation to prevent rhesus iso-immunization and future HDN. Other possible iso-immunization events, such as threatened miscarriage after 12 weeks’ gestation, antepartum haemorrhage and delivery of the baby, may require additional anti-D prophylaxis in rhesus-negative women.
Slide 19 - Rubella Women who are found to be rubella non-immune should be strongly advised to avoid infectious contacts and should undergo rubella immunization after the current pregnancy to protect themselves for the future. Hepatitis B Vertical transmission to the fetus may occur, mostly during labour, and horizontal transmission to staff or the newborn infant can follow contact with body fluids. A baby born to a hepatitis B carrier should be actively and passively immunized at delivery.
Slide 20 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus In known HIV-positive mothers, the use of antiretroviral agents, elective Caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding reduces vertical transmission rates from approximately 30% to less than 5%. The Department of Health guidelines now recommend that all pregnant women should be offered an HIV test at booking. Syphilis
Slide 21 - Haemoglobin Studies Tests for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease are usually reserved for women who have an ethnic background and those from the Middle East.
Slide 22 - Gestational Diabetes Random Blood Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar Formal Oral Glucose Tolerance
Slide 23 - Pattern Of Follow Up Visits 4 weekly appointments from 20 weeks until 32 weeks Followed by fortnightly visits 32 weeks to 36 weeks and weekly visits. The minimum number of ‘visits’ recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is 5, occurring at 12, 20, 28-32, 36 and 40-41 weeks.
Slide 24 - Content Of Follow Up Visits General questions regarding maternal well-being. Enquiry regarding fetal movements (24 weeks). Measurement of blood pressure (a screen for pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders). Urinalysis, particularly for protein, blood and glucose: this is used to help detect infection, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes.
Slide 25 - Examination for oedema: Oedema is common in pregnancy and is mostly an insensitive marker of pre-eclempsia. Oedema of the hands and face is somewhat more important as a warning feature of pre-eclampsia. Abdominal palpation for fundal height: If repeated symphysis–fundal height measurement are made throughout a pregnancy, the detection of fetal growth problems and abnormalities of liquor volume increased.
Slide 26 - Auscultation of the fetal heart: There is no evidence that this practice is of any benefit in a woman confident in the movements of her baby; however, it provides considerable reassurance and will occasionally detect an otherwise unrecognized intrauterine fetal death. A full blood count and red cell antibody screen is repeated at 28 and 36 weeks. Depending on the screening policy of the particular unit, women at 28 weeks may be tested for gestational diabetes.
Slide 27 - From 36 weeks, the lie of the fetus (longitudinal, transverse or oblique), its presentation (cephalic or breech) and the degree of engagement of the presenting part should be assessed and recorded. It is often at this appointment that a decision is made regarding the mode of delivery (i.e. vaginal delivery or planned Caeserean section).
Slide 28 - At 41 weeks’ gestation, a discussion regarding the merits of induction of labour for prolonged pregnancy should occur. An association between prolonged pregnancy and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality means that women are usually advised that delivery of the baby should occur by 42 completed weeks’ gestation. This will usually mean organizing a date for induction of labour at approximately 12 days past the EDD.
Slide 29 - Antenatal complications dealt with in customized antenatal clinics
Slide 30 - Endocrine (diabetes, thyroid, prolactin and other endocrinopathies) Miscellaneous medical disorders (e.g. secondary hypertension, autoimmune disease) Haematology (thrombophilias, bleeding disorder) Substance Misuse Preterm labour Multiple gestation Teenage pregnancy
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