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Slide 1 - Aircraft Anti-Icing Systems Group 4 Leslie Mehl Annie Parsons
Slide 2 - Negative Effects of Ice Buildup Destroys smooth flow of air over wing, leading to severe decrease in lift and increase in drag forces Can change pitching moment As angle of attack is increased to compensate for decreased lift, more accumulation can occur on lower wing surface Causes damage to external equipment such as antennae and can clog inlets, and cause impact damage to fuselage and engines Considered a cumulative hazard because as ice builds up on the wing, it increasingly changes the flight characteristics http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22
Slide 3 - Types of Ice Rime: “has a rough milky white appearance and generally follows the surface closely” Clear/Glaze: “sometimes clear and smooth but usually contain some air pockets that result in a lumpy translucent appearance, denser, harder and more difficult to break than rime ice” Mixed http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/weather/tutorial/images/32clearice.gif&imgrefurl=http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/weather/tutorial/tutorial4.html&h=235&w=280&sz=29&hl=en&start=6&tbnid=NrYdps_943cEmM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=114
Slide 4 - Ice Detection Electronic ice detection common, but can give false readings GM is developing a mass based ice detection system where ice builds up on external probe After mass of probe has increased due to additional ice, anti-icing systems are alerted and turned on This increases fuel efficiency and system life as de-icing systems are only turned on as required by conditions
Slide 5 - Types of Ice Removal Anti-Icing Preemptive, turned on before the flight enters icing conditions Includes: thermal heat, prop heat, pitot heat, fuel vent heat, windshield heat, and fluid surface de-icers De-Icing Reactive, used after there has been significant ice build up Includes surface de-ice equipment such as boots, weeping wing systems, and heated wings
Slide 6 - Propeller Anti-Icers Ice usually appears on propeller before it forms on the wing Can be treated with chemicals from slinger rings on the prop hub Graphite electric resistance heaters on leading edges of blades can also be used http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22
Slide 7 - Windshield Anti-Icers Liquids used include: ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, Grade B Isopropyl alcohol, urea, sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium formate, and chloride salts Chemicals are often bad for the environment Usually uses resistance heat to clear windshield or chemical sprays while on the ground http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22
Slide 8 - Thermal Heat Air Heated Bleed air from engine heats inlet cowls to keep ice from forming Bleed air can be ducted to wings to heat wing surface as well Ice can also build up within engine, so shutoff valves need to be incorporated in design Usually used to protect leading edge slat, and engine inlet cowls Resistance heater Used to prevent ice from forming on pitot tubes, stall vanes, temperature probes, and drain masts Airplane Design, Book 4, Roskam
Slide 9 - Boots Inflatable rubber strips that run along the leading edge of wing and tail surfaces When inflated, they expand knocking ice off of wing surface After ice has been removed, suction is applied to boots, returning them to the original shape for normal flight Usually used on smaller planes http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22
Slide 10 - Weeping Wing Fluid is pumped through mesh screen on leading edge of wing and tail Chemical is distributed over wing surface, melting ice Can also be used on propeller blades and windshields http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22
Slide 11 - Electro-impulse Deicing Electromagnetic coil under the skin induces strong eddy currents on surface Delivers mechanical impulses to the surface on which ice has formed Strong opposing forces formed between coil and skin Resulting acceleration sheds ice from the surface Can shed ice as thin as 0.05” http://www.idiny.com/eidi.html
Slide 12 - Typical Anti-Icing C-130: Engine bleed air used for anti-icing wing and empennage leading edges, radome, and engine inlet air ducts. Electrical heat provides anti-icing for propellers, windshield, and pitot tubes. 777: Engine bleed air used to heat engine cowl inlets. If leak is detected in Anti-Ice duct, affected engine Anti-Ice valves close. Wing Anti-Ice System provides bleed air to three leading edge slats on each wing. Wing Anti-Ice is only available in flight.
Slide 13 - References “Airplane Design, Pt 4.” Roskam http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/sa11.pdf#search=%22anti-icing%20systems%20aircraft%22 http://www.newpiper.com/promo/PIIPS/images/PIIPSPropSlingerRing.jpg http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/c-130.htm http://www.airs-icing.org/AIRS_II/AIAAReno2006/AIAA-2006-206-739.pdf#search=%22transport%20ice%20%22in%20flight%22%22 www.p2pays.org/ref/07/06047.pdf Ice Pictures http://www.idiny.com/eidi.html