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Slide 1 - 1 REAL services to assist students who identify with Asperger syndrome (AS) reliable empathic anticipatory logical n.martin@lse.ac.uk
Slide 2 - 2 evidence base participants 291 students who identify with AS from 20 universities 17 of their mums 121 professionals working in various roles in HE with students identifying with AS 4 peers (part of a buddy scheme) qualitative research influenced by grounded theory, action research and emancipatory principles over a decade similar concerns emerged within 8 linked studies
Slide 3 - 3 publications: Nicola Martin (2000): Widening opportunities for students with AS. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning (2) 42-48 (2005): AS in the workplace. SKILL (81) 30-34 (2006): Strategies which increase the likelihood of success at university of students with AS. GAP (7:2) 51-60 (2007): Personal statements. Helping transition to further education and employment. GAP (8:2) 17-21 (2008):REAL services to assist university students who have AS. NADP Technical briefing. (10/08) (2008): A template for improving provision for students with AS in FE and HE. NADP Technical briefing. (10/08) (2008).Empathy is a two way street. Pollak. Neurodiversity in HE
Slide 4 - 4 co-authored Madriaga, Goodley, Hodge, Beardon (2008). Enabling transitions into higher education for students with AS. HEA Martin, Beardon, Hodge, Goodley, Madriaga (2008). Towards an inclusive environment for university students who have AS. JIPFHE 1(1);3-14 Beardon, Martin, Woolsey (2009)What do students with AS and HFA want from college and university-in their own words. GAP 10(2): 35-44 Hendrickx, Martin (20110 Insights into intimacy for people with AS and their partners. GAP (12(1) 26-34 Atkinson, Evans S, Gandy, Graham, Hendrickx, Jackson (2011). A buddy scheme. Supporting transition and progression for students identified with AS. JIPFHE 3(2) Baron-Cohen, Harding, Hastwell, Martin (2012) Cambridge university as experienced by students who identify with AS (Project report for publication May 2012).
Slide 5 - 5 successes serious dedicated hard working students /good graduates- particularly in STEM subjects neurodiversity increasingly celebrated as difference numbers are increasing.2003 (80) 2009 (1205) HESA figures exclude students who did not disclose supportive communities of people with AS, via the internet /social networking
Slide 6 - 6 HE identified as a possibility in: Supporting People with Autism Through Adulthood. NAO (2009) The Autism Act 2009 The Autism Strategy 2010 The Equality Act (2010) demands further improvements
Slide 7 - 7 students say... 'I found university no problem. I got no additional support but in a huge institution no one cares if you are a bit strange'. ASPECT)
Slide 8 - 8 challenges dealing with new social environments, frequently being socially inexperienced, previously bullied /left out depression often arising from social isolation /other people’s behaviour communicating with people who may be unclear/ unreliable /confusing imagination /flexibility required to problem solve, cope with change /work out what to do in new situations
Slide 9 - 9 ........ issues with empathy towards / from others difficulty with understanding expectations getting lost in detail managing practicalities anxiety, stress, often result of confusion /perfectionism sensory sensitivities (central coherence, executive function, theory of mind)
Slide 10 - 10
Slide 11 - 11 some people embrace A.S. /disability identity but others don’t and consequently avoid associated services diagnosis is necessary to access Disabled Student Allowance adult diagnostic services and post diagnosis support are scarce it is difficult to capture views of people who do not want to talk about AS
Slide 12 - 12 be reliable over promising and under delivering is not an option services based on a single member of staff have built in conditions for under reliability a timetable punctuated with regular academic, social, domestic and support activity can help not assuming competence with money, public transport etc is helpful and reliable backup to learn these skills may be required
Slide 13 - 13 reliable strategies the culture of the institution needs to promote reliability as a core value which applies to everyone- staff and students staff training should emphasise reliability and include various roles (eg residential services, student union) team work could be part of the marking criteria in group work
Slide 14 - 14 students say... 'It all went chaotic last term. The note taker missed out on at least two of my seminars...she went to the wrong room‘. (Madriaga) 'Routines changes suddenly, too many people talking, crowds moving'. (ASPECT) 'I need a laptop, a PDA, someone with me between classes, a quiet and consistent place to work, a meal plan, a mentor to go between all my different support people and tutors and not too much group work‘. (ASPECT)
Slide 15 - 15 'A diagnosis would have helped so I didn't feel my lack of social skills was a deficit of mine‘. (ASPECT) ‘Having a diagnosis of AS in school means, as an adult, you feel like you can never actually participate normally in everything with everyone else‘. (student)
Slide 16 - 16 empathise- empathy is a two way street imagine being left out would you like to be the student who looked like they had brought their mother with them? what has Fresher’s week got to offer to students who don’t like booze and nightclubs? would ‘I know about AS, I have read ‘The curious incident...’ make you feel good? how about a bit of genius pressure?
Slide 17 - 17 empathic strategies foster a culture which celebrates diversity and individuality provide diverse social opportunities and easy ways to access them employ high status peer mentors and emphasise reliability in training
Slide 18 - 18
Slide 19 - 19 anticipate... unfamiliar situations can cause anxiety unexpected changes in routine can cause distress sensory environment could be disturbing social experience beyond family may be limited making choices when faced with a blank sheet can be overwhelming challenge of getting to the next stage including finding employment some students avoid disability services phases of depression and anxiety are likely
Slide 20 - 20
Slide 21 - 21 anticipatory strategies develop /communicate robust joined up pre entry support (start early) ensure access to general support/ wellbeing services/timetabled fun induct into each year /consider each stage establish reliable means to advise of change (eg post it note on the door for room change, texting, email, intranet) help with placement /securing a job
Slide 22 - 22 be logical interact ' with the affect turned off’ ambiguity /unclear expectations, can perpetuate confusion / cause anxiety difficulty with understanding what is in another persons head can make it hard to work out what the lecturer means spelling out how (a) relates to (b) can help students to see the links
Slide 23 - 23 logical strategies communicate unambiguously write straightforward assignment briefs spell out the relative weightings of pieces of work and how much effort is expected explain the potential consequences of choices put achievement and failure in context say what you mean / mean what you say
Slide 24 - 24 the last word 'People need to get over the idea that the 'neuro typical way is the right way and any other way is wrong. The AS way is just as valid, in fact better in some respects. We should be accepted in our own right, and the emphasis should be on educating NT's not to be so discriminatory, and to get over the absurd and offensive idea that they are better than anyone else. People with AS don't need to be cured, or trained how to be 'normal'. It's the 'normal' people who need to learn that, contrary to what they think, they are not the pinnacle of God's creation and there is, in fact, a lot they could learn from Aspies. They need to be taught not to be prejudiced and discriminatory, and to accept and accommodate us for who we are'. (ASPECT)
Slide 25 - 25 notes on illustrations slide 10 shows a crowd scene to illustrate a stressful sensory environment with the potential for sensory overload slide 18 shows Dustin Hoffman’s portrayal of Rain Man which is included to facilitate discussion about stereotyping slide 20 depicts an anxiety provoking airport scene