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Slide 1 - slide 1 Vitaly Shmatikov CS 345 Programming Languages http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~shmat/courses/cs345/
Slide 2 - slide 2 Course Personnel Instructor: Vitaly Shmatikov Office: CSA 1.114 Office hours: Tuesday, 3:30-4:30pm (after class) Open door policy – don’t hesitate to stop by! TAs: Jeremy Stober and Austin Waters Office: PAI 5.38 (TA station #1) Office hours: Monday, 2-3pm and Wednesday, 1:30-2:30pm (Jeremy), TBA (Austin) Watch the course website Assignments, reading materials, lecture notes
Slide 3 - slide 3 Course Logistics Lectures: Tuesday, Thursday 2-3:15pm Homeworks and programming assignments 49% of the grade (7 assignments, 7% each) Three in-class exams (2 midterms and final) 51% of the grade (17% each) No make-up or substitute exams! If you are not sure you will be able to take the exams in class on the assigned dates, do not take this course!
Slide 4 - slide 4 Code of Conduct UTCS Code of Conduct will be strictly enforced All assignments are strictly individual Unless explicitly stated otherwise “ We were just talkin’ ” is not an excuse No Googling for answers! You do not want me to catch you cheating
Slide 5 - slide 5 Late Submission Policy Each take-home assignment is due in class at 2pm on the due date You have 3 late days to use any way you want You can submit one assignment 3 days late, 3 assignments 1 day late, etc. After you use up your days, you get 0 points for each late assignment Partial days are rounded up to the next full day
Slide 6 - slide 6 Course Materials Textbook: Mitchell. “Concepts in Programming Languages.” Attend lectures! Lectures will cover some material that is not in the textbook – and you will be tested on it! Harbison, Steele. “C: A Reference Manual.” (5th edition) Occasional assigned readings
Slide 7 - slide 7 Other Helpful Books Bison Manual Dybvig. “The Scheme Programming Language.” Harper. “Programming in Standard ML.” All of these are available for free online See links on the course website
Slide 8 - slide 8 Syllabus Survey of fundamental concepts underlying modern programming languages Goal: understand paradigms, not vocational training in any given language Examples drawn from ANSI C, C++, Java, Scheme, ML, JavaScript … Procedural / imperative Functional / applicative Object-oriented Concurrent
Slide 9 - slide 9 Some Course Goals Language as a framework for problem-solving Understand the languages you use, by comparison Appreciate history, diversity of ideas in programming Be prepared for new methods, paradigms, tools Critical thought Identify properties of language, not syntax or sales pitch Language and implementation tradeoffs Every convenience has its cost Recognize the cost of presenting an abstract view of machine Understand tradeoffs in programming language design
Slide 10 - slide 10 Dijkstra on Language Design “The use of COBOL cripples the mind; its teaching should, therefore, be regarded as a criminal offence.” “APL is a mistake, carried through to perfection. It is the language of the future for the programming techniques of the past: it creates a new generation of coding bums.” “FORTRAN, 'the infantile disorder’ … is hopelessly inadequate for whatever computer application you have in mind today: it is now too clumsy, too risky, and too expensive to use.” “It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration.”
Slide 11 - slide 11 What’s Worth Studying? Dominant languages and paradigms C, C++, Java… JavaScript? Imperative and object-oriented languages Important implementation ideas Performance challenges Concurrency Design tradeoffs Concepts that research community is exploring for new programming languages and tools
Slide 12 - slide 12 Languages in Common Use [F. Labelle] Based on open-source projects at SourceForge
Slide 13 - slide 13 Flon’s Axiom “There is not now, nor has there ever been, nor will there ever be, any programming language in which it is the least bit difficult to write bad code.” - Lawrence Flon
Slide 14 - slide 14 Latest Trends Commercial trends Increasing use of type-safe languages: Java, C#, … Scripting and other languages for Web applications Teaching trends: Java replacing C Research and development trends Modularity Program analysis Automated error detection, programming environments, compilation Isolation and security Sandboxing, language-based security, …
Slide 15 - slide 15 Support for Abstraction Data Programmer-defined types and classes Class libraries Procedural Programmer-defined functions Standard function libraries
Slide 16 - slide 16 Reliability Program behavior is the same on different platforms E.g., early versions of Fortran Type errors are detected E.g., C vs. ML Semantic errors are properly trapped E.g., C vs. C++ Memory leaks are prevented E.g., C vs. Java
Slide 17 - slide 17 What Does This C Statement Mean? *p++ = *q++ increments p increments q modifies *p Does this mean… … or … or *p = *q; ++p; ++q; *p = *q; ++q; ++p; tp = p; ++p; tq = q; ++q; *tp = *tq;
Slide 18 - slide 18 A language is orthogonal if its features are built upon a small, mutually independent set of primitive operations. Fewer exceptional rules = conceptual simplicity E.g., restricting types of arguments to a function Tradeoffs with efficiency Orthogonality
Slide 19 - slide 19 Embedded systems Real-time responsiveness (e.g., navigation) Failures of early Ada implementations Web applications Responsiveness to users (e.g., Google search) Corporate database applications Efficient search and updating AI applications Modeling human behaviors Efficient Implementation