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Tags : air pollution | pollution | delhi air pollution | air quality | air quality index | AQI | delhi aqi

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Air Pollution in Delhi
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Slide 1 - Air Pollution in Delhi: Air Quality Index - Public Awareness Tool Issues & Challenges – Air Pollution in Delhi PHD Chamber of Commerce, New Delhi and GreencIndia Consulting Co. Ltd. May 6, 2016 J.K. Bassin Ex. Chief Scientist & Head CSIR-NEERI Delhi Zonal Lab., New Delhi
Slide 2 - Earth is completely enveloped in a layer of a gaseous mixture called the Atmosphere. The atmosphere is held in place by gravity but moves with relative ease in complex patterns over the face of the earth. Although traces of atmospheric gases are found rotating with the earth as high as 10000 km, >50% mass of atmosphere lies below 6 km & ~99% below 29 km a very thin layer when compared to earth’s diameter. Earth’s Atmosphere
Slide 3 - Troposphere is the layer in which most living things exist and hence is of greatest interest from point of view of pollution. Earth’s atmosphere is not boundless it has definite limits. It also has limited capacity to cleanse itself. Rapid industrialization and urbanization has resulted in release of various pollutants into atmosphere, presuming it to be an endless reservoir. Earth’s Atmosphere
Slide 4 - .. World Population
Slide 5 - Development is Necessary The environmental problems of developing countries are not the side effects of excessive industrialization but reflect the inadequacy of development. The rich countries may look upon development as the cause of environmental destruction, but to us it is one of – primary means of improving the environment for living providing food, water, sanitation and shelter making the deserts green and the mountains habitable. A higher standard of living must be achieved without alienating people from their heritage & without despoiling nature of its beauty, freshness & purity so essential to our lives. Shrimati Indira Gandhi United Nations Conference on the Human Environment Stockholm, June 1972
Slide 6 - INDUSTRY Developmental Activity Technology Management Gaseous Effluent Solid Wastes Liquid Effluent Development is Necessary All our developmental activities utilize resources Conversion efficiencies dictate the extent of wastes generated Indicators Industrialization Env’mental Quality SOURCE (Supportive) SINK (Assimilative) Reduce/Reuse/ Recycle/Recover SD: More with Less
Slide 7 - Environmental Consequences of Development Large-scale industrialization has, however, resulted in severe Air Pollution of Global, Regional,and Local dimensions, Such as Climate Change and Global Warming Greenhouse Gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3 and Water Vapour Ozone Hole (stratospheric O3): CFCs Acid rain: NO2, SO2 Heat Island Effect: Increased Energy Use Therefore, Sustainable Development is warranted
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Slide 9 - The Major Issue THEIR IMPORTANCE - Not Manufactured - Limited Assimilative Capacity - Limited Supportive Capacity Survival of Life on Earth depends on 3 Natural Resources Air - We can live for ~ 5 minutes without air 25000L (~16 kg) @Breathing rate of 22000/day Water - We can live for ~ 5 days without water Normal consumption 2 – 5 kg per day Food - We can live for ~ 5 weeks without food Normal consumption 1-2 kg per day Lead 0.3 mg/L (300000µg/m3) in water considered harmful but only 1.5 µg/m3 in air is deadly harmful
Slide 10 - John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849 Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory & Obedience The excerpt is from “The Lamp of Memory”
Slide 11 - The excess concentration of foreign matter in the air that adversely affects the well-being of the individual or causes damage to property Definition of Air Pollution THE AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 Air pollution means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant. Air pollutant means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment
Slide 12 - Air pollution is one of the major problems faced by many urban centers across the country. Delhi is no exception as it boasts of all the right mix of sources which can create an unacceptable urban air pollution scenario. The tremendous increase in the number of vehicles has contributed significantly to the increase in combustion of petroleum products. The vehicular pollution in Delhi has grown from 64% to 72% in the last decade (1990 – 2000) whereas petrol and diesel consumption have grown by 400% and 300% respectively in the last two decades. Other sources such as construction dust, biomass and refuse burning and other unregulated sources are becoming major inputs in some areas of high pollution levels. Air Pollution Scenario in Delhi Ref: Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory & Source Apportionment Studies for Delhi NEERI, Nagpur
Slide 13 - Garbage burning. (ref: TOI 24.04.16)
Slide 14 - Diesel generator sets are very common in household as well as for commercial purposes due to perennial power shortage, more pronounced in summer Slums use wood, kerosene, biomass, refuse for cooking. Biomass burning for heating is very high during winter months The city has mix of many types of industries starting from SSI to large industries such as power plants. Industrial use of fuel is mixed and many of them operate in non-conforming zones Air Pollution Scenario in Delhi Ref: Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory & Source Apportionment Studies for Delhi NEERI, Nagpur
Slide 15 - NAAQS-2009
Slide 16 - RSPM Concentration 2000-2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi
Slide 17 - 2000-2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi
Slide 18 - 2000-2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi
Slide 19 - Air Pollution – Monitoring & Action Ambient air quality is monitored at 593 locations in 249 cities, towns and industrial areas across the country by CPCB in association with SPCBs & PCC for SO2, NO2, and PM10 under National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) Govt. has taken several measures to mitigate air pollution which include: Notification of NAAQS-2009, envisaging 12 pollutants Regulations / statutes including stringent source specific standards for industries to address the rising levels of air pollution in the country Setting up of monitoring network for assessment of ambient air quality Execution of SA studies in select cities & formulation of action plans for AQ in cities Implementation of BS-IV norms in 63 select cities & BS-III norms in rest of the country Cleaner fuel like CNG, LPG etc.; promotion of public transport network including Metro Creation of infrastructure for industrial pollution control incorporating cleaner production processes, setting up of common pollution control facilities National Air Quality Index was launched in April, 2015 Short-term and long-term plans have been formulated to mitigate pollution in Delhi Ref: Statement referred to in reply to Lok Sabha Starred Question No. 109 due for reply on 28.07.2015 regarding National Ambient Air Quality Standards' by KUMARI SUSHMITA DEV and SHRI RAJESH RANJAN, Hon'ble Members of Parliament
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Slide 21 - CBCP told the principal bench of the NGT, “… There is no data to suggest that the odd-even scheme has any impact on the decrease in vehicular pollution… the fluctuations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 is due to weather and change in wind patterns” http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/cpcb-to-ngt-odd-even-ii-not-reducing-vehicular-pollution-2764708/#sthash.btSIVfCb.dpuf Odd-even not a solution to Delhi pollution, says AIIMS doctor http://www.thestatesman.com/news/latest-headlines/odd-even-not-a-solution-to-delhi-pollution-says-aiims-doctor/138947.html#EBWR0CjJokvEcgdS.99 Odd-even is judged by ‘editors in AC rooms’ http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/oddeven-is-judged-by-editors-in-ac-rooms/article8534813.ece Is Odd-Even Scheme a Solution? Contribution of vehicles to PM2.5 concentration is 20% (IITK)
Slide 22 - About National Air Quality Index AQI is a tool for effective communication of air quality status to people in terms, which are easy to understand – an index for reporting daily air quality AQI tells how clean or polluted air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern AQI transforms complex air quality data of various pollutants into a single number (index value), nomenclature and colour AQI focuses on health effects one may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air
Slide 23 - About National Air Quality Index Six AQI categories: Good Satisfactory Moderate Poor Very-Poor Severe Category is decided based on ambient concentration of air pollutants and their likely health impacts (known as health breakpoints) AQ sub-index and health breakpoints are evolved for eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which short-term (upto 24-hours) NAAQS are prescribed Based on the measured ambient concentrations of a pollutant, sub-index is calculated. The worst sub-index determines the overall AQI
Slide 24 - Sub-indices for individual pollutants are calculated using 24-hourly average concentration value (8-hourly in case of CO and O3) and health breakpoint concentration range The worst sub-index is the AQI for that location Overall AQI is calculated if data are available for minimum three pollutants – one necessarily be either PM2.5 or PM10 minimum of 16 hours’ data is available else, data are considered insufficient for calculating AQI Sub-indices for monitored pollutants are calculated and disseminated, even if data are inadequate for determining AQI How is AQI calculated
Slide 25 - Web-based system is designed to provide AQI on real time basis An automated system that captures data from CAMS without human intervention, and displays AQI based on 24-hrly running average values (e.g. AQI at 6am on a day will incorporate data from 6am on previous day to the current day) For manual monitoring stations, an AQI calculator is developed wherein data can be fed manually to get AQI value How is AQI calculated AQI Manual
Slide 26 - Air Quality Index & Health Impacts
Slide 27 - Air Quality Index Categories
Slide 28 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 29 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 30 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 31 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 32 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 33 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 34 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Slide 35 - Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
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Slide 37 - IND-AQI-2014
Slide 38 - http://cpcb.nic.in/AQI_new_2.php Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites
Slide 39 - Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites
Slide 40 - Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites
Slide 41 - AQI should be viewed as a tool to enhance public awareness and public involvement in efforts to improve air quality. People can contribute by - Maintaining vehicles properly (e.g. get PUC checks, replace car air filter, maintain right tire pressure) Following lane discipline & speed limits Avoiding prolonged idling & turning off engines at red traffic signals In addition to above, during severe or very poor AQI, people should - Minimise travel Avoid using private vehicles and instead use public transport, bikes or walk, and carpool Use smaller vehicles (e.g. avoid SUVs) Public Awareness & Involvement
Slide 42 - Air Quality Data sites – CPCB & DPCC https://urbairindia-cpcb.in/ http://www.dpccairdata.com/dpccairdata/display/index.php http://www.cpcb.gov.in/cpcbpa/ http://aqicn.org/city/
Slide 43 - Air Quality Monitoring & Source Apportionment Studies, Delhi 2004-2007 OBJECTIVES To measure baseline air pollutants and air toxics levels in different parts of Delhi, including "hot spots" on kerbside To inventorise various air pollutants for emission inventory and projection analysis To conduct source apportionment studies for Particulate Matter (PM 10 & PM2.5) To delineate Urban Air Quality Management Plan DELIVERABLES Spatial & Temporal analysis of different air quality parameters along with corresponding emission rates of pertinent sources (obtained through emission inventory) after quantification of contribution (temporal and spatial profiling) of pollutants emitted from different sectors (transport, industrial, commercial, residential, etc). % share in emissions, of each source category at different receptors. (e.g. types of vehicles (2/3 wheelers, passenger cars, light duty vehicles, multi-utility vehicles, buses and trucks), each category of fuel (Gasoline, CNG/LPG and Diesel), sub-categorization in terms of vehicle technology within the aforesaid category, age of the vehicle and impact of inspection & maintenance practices, pre Euro-I, etc.) Development of different impact scenarios based on projected growth trends in emissions in the next 5 years for various source categories. STUDY FRAMEWORK
Slide 44 - Ambient & Kerbside Air Quality Monitoring Criteria Pollutants Specific Pollutants Source Apportionment Receptor Modeling Emission Inventory CMB Factor Analysis SPM, PM10 / RPM, PM2.5, SO2, NOx CO, O3 NMHC, HC, VOCs, Aldehydes, PAH 20 days continuous at 4 sites simultaneously As per the monitoring schedule Major Industries Domestic & other Sources/ Activities Different Categories viz., Fuel type, Age, Vehicle Technology Database on criteria & specific pollutants Point Sources Area Sources Line Sources Quantification of emission loads from Point, Area & Line Sources within the receptors impact zone Percentage contribution to air quality by different types of sources Projections on Air Quality Improvement under Different Emission Scenarios / Management Options through Modelling (ISCST3) Major Components Chemical Speciation
Slide 45 - Location of Monitoring Stations NAAQM - NEERI (11-13) IOCL ( 1-10) CPCB (14-20) Started since June 2004
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Slide 47 - Instrumental Facilities installed in each Porta-cabin in the field. OC/EC Analyser installed in the Lab. 3 Season monitoring 20 days continuous 3 sites simultaneously Ref. site with every set of 3 sites Monitoring local met. at each site Stress on PM10 ; Limited PM2.5 CPCB SOPs to be adhered Built-in checks for QA/QC Continuous (24hr) power supply Salient Features of Common Methodology
Slide 48 - Average Concentration of Particulate & Gaseous Pollutant at Ten Sites SALIENT FINDINGS RSPM range: 200-500 μg/m3, does not meet Std. at most sites. SO2 meet standards at all locations. NOx exceeds Std. at few places wherever vehicular activities are intense. Seasonal variation indicates that values are higher in Winter & PM than in Summer.
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Slide 50 - Prominence of Sources of PM10
Slide 51 - Despite long history of development, community air pollution must be looked upon as a problem of the future Only few largest population concentrations of present day are occasionally using their air supplies faster than natural processes can replenish them. Such overuse must be expected to occur with increasing frequency as populations increase, since per capita demand for air cannot decline. Air resource was almost infinitely large in relation to daily withdrawal and use, so its pollution caused discomfort and illness only in areas immediately adjacent to sources. Air Pollution as a Problem of the Future
Slide 52 - Due to population increase, a time must come when human occupation of the medium will threaten the quality of the total air resource. Residues of nuclear weapon testing and huge outpourings of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion have already demonstrated the extent to which human activity can affect total gaseous milieu. Monetary cost of maintaining acceptable air quality can be expected to rise in exponential relationship to number of people & associated activities. Emergence of air pollution as a regional or global phenomenon has already had significant impacts on governmental and administrative procedures. Air Pollution as a Problem of the Future
Slide 53 - Water is already bottled and sold at premium. Take care, lest the apprehension comes true
Slide 54 - THANKS