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Genetic engineering methods used to develop new plant for human, find this genetic engineering ppt presentation to know more about genetic engineering of plants.

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engineering | genetic | genetic modification | genetic manipulation | types of genetic engineering | about genetic engineering | genetically modified organisms | plant genetic engineering | agricultural biotechnology | plants engineering

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Slide 1 - GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PLANTS
Slide 2 - Making Transgenic Plants and Animals Why? Study gene function and regulation Making new organismic tools for other fields of research Curing genetic diseases Improving agriculture and related raw materials New sources of bioengineered drugs (use plants instead of animals or bacteria)
Slide 3 - Genetic Engineering of Plants Must get DNA: into the cells integrated into the genome (unless using transient expression assays) expressed (everywhere or controlled) For (1) and (2), two main approaches for plants: Agrobacterium - mediated gene transfer Direct gene transfer For (3), use promoter that will direct expression when and where wanted - may also require other modifications such as removing or replacing introns.
Slide 4 - Agrobacterium - mediated Gene Transfer Most common method of engineering dicots, but also used for monocots Pioneered by J. Schell (Max-Planck Inst., Cologne) Agrobacteria soil bacteria, gram-negative, related to Rhizobia species: tumefaciens- causes crown galls on many dicots rubi- causes small galls on a few dicots rhizogenes- hairy root disease radiobacter- avirulent
Slide 5 - Crown galls caused by A. tumefaciens on nightshade. More about Galls: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/pljuly99.htm http://kaweahoaks.com/html/galls_ofthe_voaks.html
Slide 6 - Agrobacterium tumefaciens the species of choice for engineering dicot plants; monocots are generally resistant (but you can get around this) some dicots more resistant than others (a genetic basis for this) complex bacterium - genome has been sequenced; 4 chromosomes; ~ 5500 genes
Slide 7 - Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Slide 8 - Infection and tumorigenesis Infection occurs at wound sites Involves recognition and chemotaxis of the bacterium toward wounded cells galls are “real tumors”, can be removed and will grow indefinitely without hormones genetic information must be transferred to plant cells
Slide 9 - Tumor characteristics Synthesize a unique amino acid, called “opine” octopine and nopaline - derived from arginine agropine - derived from glutamate Opine depends on the strain of A. tumefaciens Opines are catabolized by the bacteria, which can use only the specific opine that it causes the plant to produce. Has obvious advantages for the bacteria, what about the plant?
Slide 10 - Elucidation of the TIP (tumor-inducing principle) It was recognized early that virulent strains could be cured of virulence, and that cured strains could regain virulence when exposed to virulent strains; suggested an extra - chromosomal element. Large plasmids were found in A. tumefaciens and their presence correlated with virulence: called tumor-inducing or Ti plasmids.
Slide 11 - Ti Plasmid Large (200-kb) Conjugative ~10% of plasmid transferred to plant cell after infection Transferred DNA (called T-DNA) integrates semi-randomly into nuclear DNA Ti plasmid also encodes: enzymes involved in opine metabolism proteins involved in mobilizing T-DNA (Vir genes)
Slide 12 - auxA auxB cyt ocs LB RB LB, RB – left and right borders (direct repeat) auxA + auxB – enzymes that produce auxin cyt – enzyme that produces cytokinin Ocs – octopine synthase, produces octopine T-DNA These genes have typical eukaryotic expression signals!
Slide 13 - auxA auxB Tryptophan indoleacetamide  indoleacetic acid (auxin) cyt AMP + isopentenylpyrophosphate  isopentyl-AMP (a cytokinin) Increased levels of these hormones stimulate cell division. Explains uncontrolled growth of tumor.
Slide 14 - Vir (virulent) genes On the Ti plasmid Transfer the T-DNA to plant cell Acetosyringone (AS) (a flavonoid) released by wounded plant cells activates vir genes. virA,B,C,D,E,F,G (7 complementation groups, but some have multiple ORFs), span about 30 kb of Ti plasmid.
Slide 15 - Vir gene functions (cont.) virA - transports AS into bacterium, activates virG post-translationally (by phosphoryl.) virG - promotes transcription of other vir genes virD2 - endonuclease/integrase that cuts T-DNA at the borders but only on one strand; attaches to the 5' end of the SS virE2 - binds SS of T-DNA & can form channels in artificial membranes virE1 - chaperone for virE2 virD2 & virE2 also have NLSs, gets T-DNA to the nucleus of plant cell virB - operon of 11 proteins, gets T-DNA through bacterial membranes
Slide 16 - From Covey & Grierson
Slide 17 - Gauthier, A. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:25273-25276 Type IV Secretion Sys. many pathogens, also used in conjugation promiscuous forms T-Pilus B7-B10 span OM & IM B7-B9 in OM interacts w/B8 & B10 of IM to form channel 3 ATPases D4 promotes specific transport B2 can form filaments
Slide 18 - VirE2 may get DNA-protein complex across host PM Dumas et al., (2001), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98:485
Slide 19 - Monocots don't produce AS in response to wounding. Important: Put any DNA between the LB and RB of T-DNA it will be transferred to plant cell! Engineering plants with Agrobacterium: Two problems had to be overcome: (1) Ti plasmids large, difficult to manipulate (2) couldn't regenerate plants from tumors
Slide 20 - Binary vector system Strategy: 1. Move T-DNA onto a separate, small plasmid. 2. Remove aux and cyt genes. 3. Insert selectable marker (kanamycin resistance) gene in T DNA. 4. Vir genes are retained on a separate plasmid. 5. Put foreign gene between T-DNA borders. 6. Co-transform Agrobacterium with both plasmids. 7. Infect plant with the transformed bacteria.
Slide 21 - Binary vector system
Slide 22 - Leaf-disc transformation - after selection and regeneration with tissue culture, get plants with the introduced gene in every cell Floral Dip - does not require tissue culture. Reproductive tissue is transformed and the resulting seeds are screened for drug-resistant growth. (Clough and Bent (1998) Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 16, 735–743) 2 Common Transformation Protocols
Slide 23 - Making a transgenic plant by leaf disc transformation with Agrobacterium. S.J. Clough, A.F. Bent (1998) Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 16, 735–743.
Slide 24 - Thank You