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Understanding Mental Health Presentation Transcript

Slide 1 - Understanding MENTAL HEALTH
Slide 2 - Mental health What do we know about mental health/illness? What local words do we use for mental illness? What do they mean?
Slide 3 - Mental health The definition of mental health is more than just the absence of disease or mental illness. It is the possession, development and interaction of a number of characteristics and qualities, some inherited and others acquired.
Slide 4 - Mental Health Complete spiritual, emotional, and cognitive wellbeing, not merely the absence of a mental disorder. A state of well being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.
Slide 5 - Mental health Mental Health Mental ill health
Slide 6 - Mental Disorders Any illness experienced by a person which affects their emotions, thoughts or behaviour, which is out of keeping with their cultural beliefs and personality, and is producing a negative effect on their lives or the lives of their families.
Slide 7 - Mental Disorders What is the criteria for determining that a person has a mental disorder? Abnormality Mal-adaptiveness Personal Distress
Slide 8 - Abnormality Behaviour that deviates from the typical person. Qualitatively abnormal behaviour - deviates from culturally acceptable standards, perhaps even seeming bizarre. Quantitatively abnormal behaviour- deviates from the statistical average. Give examples
Slide 9 - Maladaptiveness Behaviour that seriously disrupts social academic or vocational life. Give examples Personal distress Subjective feeling of anxiety depression or another unpleasant emotion determines whether one has a psychological disorder.
Slide 10 - CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM IV and ICD 10) Earlier tools classified mental illness into two categories Neurosis and psychosis. The world psychosis has remained in every day talk, even if no-longer used for classification.
Slide 11 - DSM IV provides five axes for diagnosing psychological disorders. Axis I – contains 16 major categories of psychological disorders Axis II – contains developmental disorders and personality disorders. Axis III – contains medical conditions that affect the person’s psychological disorder. Axis IV- contains rating (1-6) of the degree of social stress that a person has been under in the past year. Axis V- contains rating (90-1) of both the currents level of functioning and the highest level of functioning during the past year.
Slide 12 - CAUSES OF MENTAL DISORDERS Biological Factors Heredity Chemical substances Infections Brain trauma Excessive or prolonged use of alcohol and drugs Brain tumors Aging malnutrition
Slide 13 - CAUSES OF MENTAL DISORDERS Psychological Personality Poor up-bringing - child abuse - parenting style - domestic violence
Slide 14 - CAUSES OF MENTAL DISORDERS Social and Environmental Natural disasters Man - made disasters Poverty Crime (victim or perpetrator) Social stress like relationships problems, bereavement, loss of work etc
Slide 15 - SIX MOST COMMON MENTAL DISORDERS Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenia Epilepsy Alcohol and drug
Slide 16 - Anxiety disorders A psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety that disrupt everyday functioning. Anxiety - feelings of apprehension accompanied by sympathetic nervous arousal, which increases sweating heart rate and breathing rate. In as much as anxiety is a part of everyday life, in the disorder it is intense chronic and disruptive of everyday functioning
Slide 17 - Types of anxiety disorders 1. Generalized anxiety disorder- an anxiety disorder that is marked by persistent state of anxiety that exists independent of any particular stressful situation. - Central feature is worry. 2. Panic disorder – marked by sudden unexpected attacks of overwhelming anxiety often associated with fear of dying or loosing ones mind. - Often accompanied by dizziness, trembling, heart palpitations shortness of breath etc.
Slide 18 - Anxiety disorders continued… 3. Phobias – marked by excessive or inappropriate fear. - the person realizes that the fear is irrational but cannot control it. 4. Obsessive – compulsive disorder – the person has recurrent, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) or recurrent ritualistic actions (compulsions).
Slide 19 - SOMATOFORM DISORDERS A psychological disorder characterized by physical symptoms in the absence of disease or injury. Different from malingering in which the person invents symptoms to evade certain responsibility.
Slide 20 - Types of Somatoform Disorders. Hypochondriasis – a person interprets the slightest physical changes in their body as evidence of a serious illness. Conversion disorder – a person exhibits motor or sensory loss or the alteration of physiological function without any apparent physical cause.
Slide 21 - MOOD DISORDERS A psychological disorder marked by prolonged periods of extreme depression or elation, often unrelated to the person’s current situation.
Slide 22 - Types of Mood Disorders Major Depression (clinical depression) - marked by depression so intense that a person may not be able to function in everyday life. Person’s may express despondency, helplessness, and loss of self esteem. Bipolar disorder – marked by periods of mania alternating with longer periods of major depression. Mania is marked by euphoria, hyperactivity, grandiose ideas, annoying talkativeness, unrealistic optimism and inflated self-esteem.
Slide 23 - SCHIZOPHRENIA A class of psychological disorders characterized by grossly impaired social, emotional, cognitive and perceptual functioning. Characterized by hallucinations, cognitive disturbances, schizophrenic language, delusions.
Slide 24 - Types of Schizophrenia Disorganized schizophrenia- marked by personality deterioration and extremely bizarre behaviour. Catatonic schizophrenia – marked by unusual motor behaviour such as bizarre actions, extreme agitation or immobile stupor. Paranoid schizophrenia – marked by hallucination, delusions, suspiciousness and argumentativeness. Undifferentiated schizophrenia.
Slide 25 - Epilepsy COMMON SYMPTOMS Recurrent seizures or fits Sometimes loss of consciousness May pass urine and faeces TYPES OF EPILEPSY Grand mal epilepsy Petit mal epilepsy Simple partial seizures Temporal lobe epilepsy Continuous fits
Slide 26 - ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE These are common problems in our communities The abuse of alcohol takes place when a person consumes more than their body can handle. Abuse of both alcohol and drugs takes place when a person cannot control the amount or type of consumption. Abuse takes place when a person is addicted and will loose dignity of the opportunity to consume the drug or alcohol.
Slide 27 - Development Disorders Normally caused by a mutation of one of or a set of genes. May also be as a result of injury or trauma during pregnancy or the birthing process.
Slide 28 - Development Disorders Downs Syndrome Autism Attention deficit disorder with or without hypersensitivity.
Slide 29 - In summary Mental disorders Affect ones ability to maximize their potential Affects a persons ability to cope with everyday stresses of life Affect the person’s productivity. “any one who has a brain can have a mental disorders”.
Slide 30 - Reporting Side effects Stabilised PWMIs Users selling produce Users allowed participating in community development Acceptance of PWMIs in community, through: Users staging drama shows on MH Joining user group Meaningful action Diagnosis. History taking by Health Worker Prescription of MH Drugs. (Treatment) Patient and carer report for next clinic day Reporting of patient condition during follow up Requisition for MH drugs Patient and carer counseling. Side effect management Side effect management Patient and carer counseling. No Side effects Community awareness sensitization on MH by -Health Workers - BNUU/ MHU Identification and referral of PWMIs to Health Units Follow up visits by volunteer teams, user group members Home care for patient. Adherence to treatment, counseling Situation Before Situation After CMH PROCESS
Slide 31 - THANK YOU