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SPECTROSCOPY Presentation Transcript

Slide 2 - 4.1 Spectral Lines 4.2 Atoms and Radiation The Hydrogen Atom 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines The Photoelectric Effect 4.4 Molecules 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis Information from Spectral Lines Units of Chapter 4
Slide 3 - Spectroscope: Splits light into component colors 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 4 - Emission lines: Single frequencies emitted by particular atoms 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 5 - Emission spectrum can be used to identify elements 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 6 - Absorption spectrum: If a continuous spectrum passes through a cool gas, atoms of the gas will absorb the same frequencies they emit 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 7 - An absorption spectrum can also be used to identify elements. These are the emission and absorption spectra of sodium: 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 8 - Kirchhoff’s Laws: Luminous solid, liquid, or dense gas produces continuous spectrum Low-density hot gas produces emission spectrum Continuous spectrum incident on cool, thin gas produces absorption spectrum 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 9 - Kirchhoff’s laws illustrated: 4.1 Spectral Lines
Slide 10 - Existence of spectral lines required new model of atom, so that only certain amounts of energy could be emitted or absorbed Bohr model had certain allowed orbits for electron 4.2 Atoms and Radiation
Slide 11 - Emission energies correspond to energy differences between allowed levels Modern model has electron “cloud” rather than orbit 4.2 Atoms and Radiation
Slide 12 - Energy levels of the hydrogen atom, showing two series of emission lines: 4.2 Atoms and Radiation The energies of the electrons in each orbit are given by: The emission lines correspond to the energy differences
Slide 13 - The photoelectric effect: When light shines on metal, electrons can be emitted Frequency must be higher than minimum, characteristic of material Increased frequency—more energetic electrons Increased intensity—more electrons, same energy 4.2 Atoms and Radiation
Slide 14 - Photoelectric effect can only be understood if light behaves like particles 4.2 Atoms and Radiation
Slide 15 - Light particles each have energy E: Here, h is Planck’s constant: 4.2 Atoms and Radiation
Slide 16 - Absorption can boost an electron to the second (or higher) excited state Two ways to decay: To ground state Cascade one orbital at a time 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines
Slide 17 - (a) Direct decay (b) Cascade 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines
Slide 18 - Absorption spectrum: Created when atoms absorb photons of right energy for excitation 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines Multielectron atoms: Much more complicated spectra, many more possible states Ionization changes energy levels
Slide 19 - Emission lines can be used to identify atoms 4.3 The Formation of Spectral Lines
Slide 20 - Molecules can vibrate and rotate, besides having energy levels Electron transitions produce visible and ultraviolet lines Vibrational transitions produce infrared lines Rotational transitions produce radio-wave lines 4.4 Molecules
Slide 21 - Molecular spectra are much more complex than atomic spectra, even for hydrogen: (a) Molecular hydrogen (b) Atomic hydrogen 4.4 Molecules
Slide 22 - Information that can be gleaned from spectral lines: Chemical composition Temperature Radial velocity 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis
Slide 23 - Line broadening can be due to a variety of causes 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis
Slide 24 - 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis
Slide 25 - 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis The Doppler shift may cause thermal broadening of spectral lines
Slide 26 - 4.5 Spectral-Line Analysis Rotation will also cause broadening of spectral lines through the Doppler effect
Slide 27 - Spectroscope splits light beam into component frequencies Continuous spectrum is emitted by solid, liquid, and dense gas Hot gas has characteristic emission spectrum Continuous spectrum incident on cool, thin gas gives characteristic absorption spectrum Summary of Chapter 4
Slide 28 - Spectra can be explained using atomic models, with electrons occupying specific orbitals Emission and absorption lines result from transitions between orbitals Molecules can also emit and absorb radiation when making transitions between vibrational or rotational states Summary of Chapter 4 (cont.)
Slide 29 - THANK YOU