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Slide 1 - Viruses
Slide 2 - Is a Virus a Living Organism? Chapter 1 – Properties of life Cellular Respiration Reproduction Metabolism Homeostasis Heredity Responsiveness Growth and development
Slide 3 - Viruses are not living organisms Viruses do not Grow Have homeostasis Metabolize Viruses do Infect cells and use the cell to make more viruses Cause disease in many organisms
Slide 4 - Parts of a Virion (a virus particle) Nucleic Acid – RNA or DNA Capsid – protein coat that surrounds the DNA or RNA in a virus Lipid Membrane – a membrane around the capsid in many kinds of viruses; helps the virus enter cells (“enveloped” viruses; without the membrane, the virus is “naked”) Made of proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins
Slide 5 - RNA or DNA? Viruses with RNA Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Influenza viruses Rabies Viruses with DNA Warts Chickenpox mononucleosis
Slide 6 - Virus Shapes Helical Rodlike with capsid proteins winding around the core in a spiral Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Slide 7 - Virus Shapes Polyhedral Has many sides Most polyhedral capsids have 20 sides and 12 corners
Slide 8 - Virus Shapes Polyhedral capsid attached to a helical tail.
Slide 9 - How do viruses replicate? 2 methods of replication: 1. Lytic Cycle – the virus enters the cell, replicates itself hundreds of times, and then bursts out of the cell, destroying it. 2. Lysogenic Cycle – the virus DNA integrates with the host DNA and the host’s cell helps create more virus DNA. An environmental change may cause the virus to enter the Lytic Cycle.
Slide 10 - In the lytic cycle, the virus reproduces itself using the host cell's chemical machinery. The red spiral lines in the drawing indicate the virus's genetic material. The orange portion is the outer shell that protects it.
Slide 11 - In the lysogenic cycle, the virus reproduces by first injecting its genetic material, indicated by the red line, into the host cell's genetic instructions.
Slide 12 - Viruses Enter Living Cells Viruses enter bacterial cells by punching a hole in the cells wall and injecting its DNA
Slide 13 - Viruses Enter Living Cells Viruses enter plant cells through tiny rips in the cell wall. Viruses enter animal cells by endocytosis.
Slide 14 - Mutating viruses Viruses can mutate when they copy the genetic material Copy something wrong Mistake proves useful More powerful virus (more infectious) Viruses don’t mutate often, except… Influenza HIV
Slide 15 - Viruses are host cell specific. Most viruses are restricted to certain kinds of cells (those that infect plants cannot infect animal cells). Why? Scientists think that viruses originated from escaped genetic material from host cells.
Slide 16 - Viruses can be beneficial… Bacteriophages – attack & destroy bacteria Baculovirus – ebola-like virus that attacks insects Could use for pest control in crops Cabbage loopers eat cabbage crops Virus can kill pests in days (it’s really gross) … and then there are those that are not so good….
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Slide 18 - The spread of West Nile virus (1999 – 2002) – bird, horse, mosquito or human
Slide 19 - Also important… Any agent (not just viruses) that causes disease is a pathogen. When a virus inserts its genetic material into a host’s DNA, it is called a provirus. Some viruses replicate very slowly and only cause damage when the conditions are “right”. (cold sores)
Slide 20 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Slide 21 - Basic Structure Viral envelope – lipid bilayer; glycoproteins protrude from surface Glycoproteins enable virus to recognize surface proteins of special immune cells and to enter the cell (like a key to the cell’s door) 2 strands RNA – only 9 genes; 3 are found in many viruses (structural proteins) Reverse Transcriptase – turns RNA into DNA (this makes HIV a retrovirus); DNA instructs cell to make more viruses
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Slide 23 - Virus enters cell through endocytosis Virus replicates RNA to DNA with reverse transcriptase HIV Making Factories
Slide 24 - DNA enters nucleus & binds with host DNA New virions exit cell through exocytosis to infect other cells (notice cell isn’t destroyed) mRNA is created (carries instructions for making new viral proteins) and leaves nucleus Uses host cell’s enzymes to make new viruses
Slide 25 - How Is HIV Spread? Sexual contact Sharing contaminated needles Blood transfusions Breast feeding (mother to baby) Mother to baby during pregnancy or birth
Slide 26 - Think about it… In the US, there is better than a 1/1000 chance of contracting HIV during unprotected sex A person can be contagious for more than 10 years before any sign of the disease is apparent HIV becomes AIDS when the number of immune cells drops below a predetermined number No one dies from HIV or AIDS; people die from secondary infections (ranging from the common cold to cancer) More than 3 million people (size of Chicago) die each year There are approx. 14,000 new cases of HIV worldwide every day
Slide 27 - This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.