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Slide 2 - Performers Appraisal Learning Objectives Explain Purposes of Performance Management Identify Success Factors in Good Programs Identify Sources of Information for Evaluation Explain Key Methods used in Managing Performance Outline the Manager/Sub-Ordinate Interview
Slide 3 - Purpose of Performance Appraisal Systems Goal: Maintain Organizational Productivity Results: Organization Productivity Individual Performance Methods: Individual Performance Goals
Slide 4 - Objectives Opportunity to Regularly Discuss Results Supervisor Identifies Strengths and Weaknesses Fair and Equitable Format Basis for Salary/Promotion Recommendations
Slide 5 - Main Purposes of Performance Management Individual Rewards (Base and Incentive) Feedback for Sub-Ordinate (Plus and Minus) Recognition of Superior Performance Documentation of Weak Performance Personnel Decision-Making Future Goal Commitments (Planned Achievements)
Slide 6 - Reasons for Appraisals Compensation "Pay for Performance" Job Performance Improvements Feedback to Subordinates Documentation for Decisions Goal Setting - Later Evaluation Promotion Decisions Identify Training Needs HR Planning
Slide 7 - Primary Uses of Performance Appraisals
Slide 8 - Trends in Managing Performance Superior Performance leads to Superior Rewards Issue: How to objectively measure specific goals! Appraising/Evaluating Managing Performance
Slide 9 - Who Performs the Appraisal? Immediate Supervisor Higher Management Self-Appraisals Peers (Co-Workers) Evaluation Teams Customers “360° Appraisals”
Slide 10 - Supervisor Appraisal Performance appraisal done by an employee’s manager and often reviewed by a manager one level higher.
Slide 11 - Self-Appraisal Performance appraisal done by the employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance review.
Slide 12 - Subordinate Appraisal Performance appraisal of a superior by an employee, which is more appropriate for developmental than for administrative purposes.
Slide 13 - Peer Appraisal Performance appraisal done by one’s fellow employees, generally on forms that are complied into a single profile for use in the performance interview conducted by the employee’s manager.
Slide 14 - Team Appraisal Performance appraisal, based on TQM concepts, that recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual performance.
Slide 15 - The 360º Appraisal Interview
Slide 16 - Performance Appraisal Problems Popularity Contest Punitive Implications Control Relinquishment Stereotypes Poor Training of Raters
Slide 17 - Peer Appraisal Concerns Disadvantages? Advantages?
Slide 18 - Rating Errors Issues Carefully Developed Behavior Descriptions Fair Evaluation Scales Factor Relatedness to the Job
Slide 19 - Types of Rating Errors Leniency/Strictness Error Define Anchors (Dimensions) Force A Curve Central Tendency Reluctant to Give High/Low Explain Need for Variability Recency Error Last Action Halo Encourage Frequent Evaluation
Slide 20 - Error of Central Tendency Performance-rating error in which all employees are rated about average.
Slide 21 - Leniency or Strictness Error Performance-rating error in which the appraiser tends to give employees either unusually high or unusually low ratings.
Slide 22 - Recency Error Performance-rating error in which the appraisal is based largely on the employee’s most recent behavior rather than on behavior throughout the appraisal period.
Slide 23 - Rating Errors Example
Slide 24 - Similar-To-Me Error Performance-rating error in which an appraiser inflates the evaluation of an employee because of a mutual personal connection.
Slide 25 - Appraisal Training Programs Needs Explain Objectives Review the Instrument Define the Performance Standards Understand Typical Subjective Errors Teach Interviewing Skills
Slide 26 - Scheduling the Performance Appraisal Schedule the review and notify the employee ten days or two weeks in advance. Ask the employee to prepare for the session by reviewing his or her performance, job objectives, and development goals. Clearly state that this will be the formal annual performance appraisal.
Slide 27 - Preparing for the Review for the Performance Appraisal Review the performance documentation collected throughout the year. Concentrate on work patterns that have developed. Be prepared to give specific examples of above- or below-average performance. When performance falls short of expectations, determine what changes need to be made. If performance meets or exceeds expectations, discuss this and plan how to reinforce it. After the appraisal is written, set it aside for a few days and then review it again. Follow whatever steps are required by your organization’s performance appraisal system.
Slide 28 - Appraisal Interviews Schedule the interview 10 to 14 days in advance. Provide subordinates with a “guide” to follow in planning for the interview. Consider which of the following approaches to use: Tell-and-sell method Tell-and-listen method Problem-solving method (generally preferable)
Slide 29 - Tell-and-Sell Interviews Supervisor persuades employee to change in a prescribed way. Employees sees how changed behavior will be of great benefit.
Slide 30 - Tell-and-Listen Interviews Supervisor covers strengths/weaknesses for first half Solicits employee’s feelings about comments Deal with disagreement, non-defensively Negotiate future concrete objectives
Slide 31 - The Problem Solving Interview Discuss strengths and weaknesses since last review Explore feelings of sub-ordinate Listening, accepting, and responding are essential Stimulate growth (performance) job Discuss problems, needs, innovations, satisfactions and dissatisfactions since last review Listen and respond with goal of helping person and productivity.
Slide 32 - Appraisal Interviews During the Interview: Emphasize strengths to build on. Suggest more acceptable ways of acting. Concentrate on present opportunities for growth. Techniques: Listen more than you talk. Use a variety of types of questions. Avoid the sandwich technique.
Slide 33 - Establishing Job Related Performance Standards Relevant Free From Contamination Reliable - Inter Rater Consistency
Slide 34 - Appraisal Program Failure Concerns Little Benefit Relative to Time Commitment Face to Face Confrontation Unskilled Appraisers Role Conflict: Judge or Teacher
Slide 35 - Appraisal Methods Rating Scales Essay Management by Objectives Check Lists by Key Words Forced Choice Statements Ranking of Employees
Slide 36 - Rating Scale Methods (most popular) (Check each trait being evaluated) Global Scale (Total Performance) Mixed Standard Scale (Choose from Different Statements) Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (Descriptions along the scale to define)
Slide 37 - Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) A behavioral approach to performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each important dimension of job performance.
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Slide 39 - Graphic Rating-Scale Method Performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of pre-defined characteristics that are job performance related.
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Slide 41 - Forced-Choice Method A trait approach to performance appraisal that requires the rater to choose from statements designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance.
Slide 42 - Essay Method A trait approach to performance appraisal that requires the rater to compose a statement describing employee behavior.
Slide 43 - Essay Method Write a Behavioral Statement Strengths versus Weaknesses Describe Selected Traits Evaluate Performance Advantages Disadvantages
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Slide 46 - Critical Incident Unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job.
Slide 47 - Management By Objective (MBO) Philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals set by mutual agreement of employee and manager.
Slide 48 - Management by Objectives (Peter Drucker) Integrates performance and goal setting Frequent intervals Record maintenance Objective review jointly Mutual buy-in
Slide 49 - Advantages of MBO Employees Can Measure Performance Quantifiable Goals Joint Effort Employee Satisfaction in Participation
Slide 50 - Disadvantages of MBO Success Not Validates by Research Studies Easy to Set Unrealistic Goals Hard to Get Full Commitment to Process Difficult to Define Some Goals
Slide 51 - Performance Appraisal Interview Needs Trained Interview Techniques Honesty in Appraisal Well Planned Structure Carefully Conducted Feedback Openness Adequate Time (more than one session occasionally)
Slide 52 - Procedural Guidelines Listen More Than Talk (1/3 rule) Vary the Questions (Open ended/elaboration) Follow-up Questions (force through responses) Reflect Feelings (clarify-sincerity) Avoid Sandwich Technique (Positive-Negative-Positive) Why? Signals Bad News No More Bad News Discourages Real Communication
Slide 53 - Measuring Performance Final review of subordinate results measured against esta-blished or revised goals New inputs provided Inappropriate goals eliminated
Slide 54 - Performance Appraisal Amoco Performance Management Description Process Developing Reviewing Pay Decision Skills Assessment Appraisal
Slide 55 - Performance Appraisal Examples Performance Appraisal Form Performance Management Form Self-Evaluation Critical Success Factors Professional Staff Evaluation Process
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