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Zoology 2100 Human Anatomy PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Zoology 2100 Human Anatomy Dr. Nicole Okazaki Time: 11-11:50 am (MWF) Location: Room LL 126 Office hours: to be posted on line Office: 408M Phone: 626-6168 Email: nokazaki@weber.edu
  • Slide 2 - Syllabus Textbooks: Required: Human Anatomy 2nd ed. McKinley&O’Loughlin McGraw and Hill Recommended: Anatomy & Physiology Revealed (CD set volume 1-4) Recommended: Dictionary of word roots and combining forms, Borror. Laboratory manual: Required: Human Anatomy. C. Eckels, McGraw Hill. Recommended: The Anatomy Student’s Self-Test Coloring Book.
  • Slide 3 - Syllabus Course website: Lecture slides, this syllabus, course notes, grades etc. will be posted on the eWeber portal (WSU online/Blackboard/WebCT). If space allows, notes will be posted on this website: faculty.weber.edu/nokazaki
  • Slide 4 - Syllabus Credit: 4 h (3 for class + 1 for lab) Grading: - 4 lecture exams (including the cumulative final): 450 points - Class quizzes 100 points - 2 lab exams: 200 points + Weekly lab quizzes: 96 points - Total possible points = 846 points Class exams Each “midterm” exam will be 100 points + Final exam 150 points Each “midterm” exam (other than the final), will cover material from after the previous exam to present (not cumulative) Final is a cumulative exam
  • Slide 5 - Syllabus Tests: Exams will be Chi-tester exams given over 2-3 days. Exams can be taken at any testing centers with a proctored computer room (6 locations at WSU) There are no makeup .You must have a valid documented excuse for missing a test and you must notify the instructor of your inability to take the test prior to the beginning of the test period. A missed test will result in a 0 in the test.
  • Slide 6 - Syllabus Laboratory: Two (2) laboratory exams Week 7 Week 15 (lab final) Each lab exam = 100 points About 9 lab quizzes Each quiz = 12 points You can drop your worst grade (more on this later) Total of 96 quiz points
  • Slide 7 - Grading scale There are no extra credit opportunities or making up missed exams: YOU NEED EVERY POINT!!!! The grading scheme is standardized: A = 100-93% B- = 92-80% D+ = 69-67% A- = 92-90% C+ = 79-77% D = 66-63% B+ = 89-87% C = 76-73% D- = 62-60% B = 86-83% C- = 72-70% E = Below 60%
  • Slide 8 - Syllabus Laboratory: Lind Lecture Hall 003 Go outside, opposite end of this building from the science lab (facing the road), down the stairs. Almost looks like a loading dock/shipping & receiving area. Look for a big sign on the door. Lab will often be open from 8:00-21:00 weekdays. Note: this is in addition to your assigned lab times. In between “formal lab times”, there will be open study periods. See your lab instructors for these actual “open” times. You cannot skip or trade labs. The labs are currently full up. Snaking someone else’s lab makes it unfair for everyone who makes the effort to do it right…don’t be a ____.
  • Slide 9 - Syllabus Laboratory: The use of human cadavers is a privilege, NOT a right. You CANNOT bring friends, family etc. into the cadaver lab UNLESS they are enrolled in this course. Treat the cadavers with respect: they were someone’s loved one at one time.
  • Slide 10 - Syllabus SPELLING Anatomy is all about spelling Spelling errors WILL COST you. On an exam, if there is a fill-in-the-blank question, and you misspell (1-2 incorrect letters), you lose ½ point. On a lab quiz, or the lab exams, if you misspell, you lose ½ point. Words spelled completely incorrectly (more than 1-2 incorrect letters) will be considered incorrect. Why?!?!?! If you misspell on a diagnosis or surgical request, it might result in amputation of the incorrect limb, or incorrect drug administration and patient death.
  • Slide 11 - Syllabus Class etiquette: Turn off your cell phones If “texting” during class is important to you, do the class a favor: do not come … why did you take the class in the first place? If you have a question, ask during class. Chances are, others have the same question. Questions and discussion are welcome during class. Cheating: it’s not worth it. If you’re caught, the punishment will ruin your academic career and any chances of medical school, nursing etc.
  • Slide 12 - Syllabus Students with disabilities: Please contact the Services for Students with Disabilities office (SSD) in room 181 of the Student Service Center. 626-6413, TTY = 626-6850 www.weber.edu/ssd
  • Slide 13 - Syllabus Pregnancy: Students who are, want to, or become pregnant should consult with their physician before continuing with this course. We will be working with cadavers. The fumes are not the most ideal thing to expose the fetus to.
  • Slide 14 - Anatomy SI
  • Slide 15 - Supplemental Instruction The S.I. program at Weber State aids students in lower division classes that have a lower than average pass rate, but are required for students to move on in their education. The program is free for everyone to attend and get help, you do not get points or graded but is has been shown to help students tremendously in the class. There will be three SI sessions held every week, times will be determined by next week.
  • Slide 16 - Objectives of the SI Go over information presented in class. Answer any questions. Review test material. Look at pictures and slides from class. Contact Info:
  • Slide 17 - Introduction
  • Slide 18 - Anatomy Anatomy: study of structure Can be surface structure (2 eyes, 5 fingers) Can be through dissection (cutting open, cutting apart) Cadaver, live patient, other animals with similar anatomy “Gross anatomy”: what you can see with your eyes, and feel with your hands “Histology”: using a microscope to magnify, so you can see cells and cell structures
  • Slide 19 - Human structure “hierarchy of complexity” Organ system (group of organs with a particular purpose ie. Cardiovascular system) - Organ (2 or more tissue types that work together to perform a function ie. Heart) - Tissue (mass of similar cells that are part of an organ) - Cells (smallest unit that carries out basic life functions…nothing smaller than a cell is considered “alive”) Organelle (microscopic structures within a cell that help the cell function) Molecule (components of the organelles…protein, DNA, atoms etc.)
  • Slide 20 - Anatomic variation We understand that not everyone is exactly the same Different races, hair color, eye color, sex etc. Some people have different anatomy Situs invertus (then the heart is placed opposite of the “normal” location) What is “normal” or “average”? Male: 22 years old, 70 Kg (154 Lbs), eats 2800 Kcal, in decent shape Female: 22 years old, 58 Kg (128 Lbs), eats 2000 Kcal, in decent shape
  • Slide 21 - Characteristics of life Organization Cellular composition Metabolism Excretion Responsiveness 6. Homeostasis 7. Development 8. Reproduction 9. Evolution
  • Slide 22 - Characteristics of life Organization: Living things are organized far more than non-living things (you’re more complex than a rock) Cellular composition: Living things are composed of cells Metabolism: Living things change molecules to control life Anabolism: make something (protein from amino acid) Catabolism: break down something (amino acid from protein)
  • Slide 23 - Characteristics of life 4. Excretion: We must get rid of the waste products formed during metabolism Very few molecules in your body last longer than 1 year, they have to be made and broken down constantly (some cells last your lifetime). 5. Responsiveness: Must be able to sense and respond to stimuli Boiling water: if you’re alive, you’ll pull your hand out…if you’re dead, you’ll leave it in
  • Slide 24 - Characteristics of life (4) 6. Homeostasis: Maintain a stable internal environment (internal stability) Not a “slave” to the environment 7. Development Change in form or function over time Differentiation: when you develop from non-specific “mass” to functionally and structurally distinct form (fertilized egg  fetus) Growth: when you grow in size 8. Reproduction: All living beings can reproduce or produce “copies
  • Slide 25 - Characteristics of life 9. Evolution: All living things have the ability to mutate or change their genetic makeup over time Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, yearly strain of the flu virus etc.
  • Slide 26 - Anatomical terms
  • Slide 27 - Terms Anatomical position When you are standing straight up, feet flat on the ground (no shoes), arms at your side, and palms facing forward It is from this position that the rest of the anatomical terms will be derived
  • Slide 28 - Terms Supine vs. prone Remember that the “anatomical position” means that you stand with your palms facing forward Supine = palms forward (towards the front) Prone = palms backward (towards your back) Important because of the way your forearm bones are “ “ “ placed: Supine = radius & ulna parallel Prone = radius & ulna crossed Also: body laying face down: prone “ “ “ up : supine
  • Slide 29 - Terms Supine vs. prone In the anatomical position, the forearm bones are parallel (your forearms are supine)
  • Slide 30 - Terms Anatomical “planes” Like a pane of glass, or slice through your body Sagittal plane: cuts your body in right and left A line that cuts from the nose to belly button Saggital plane
  • Slide 31 - Terms Sagittal plane This “cut” DOES NOT have to be through your center IF IT IS through your center (and divides you in half, or divides an ORGAN in half) = median or mid-sagittal plane If it DOES NOT cut you or an organ in half = sagittal plane
  • Slide 32 - Terms Mid-sagittal plane (median sagittal plane) Cuts the body cavity in half, but legs are not cut in half Legs are in “sagittal plane”
  • Slide 33 - Terms Sagittal plane Body is not cut in half…the “cut” is now considered sagittal, NOT median or mid-saggital Right leg now in median or mid-sagittal plane
  • Slide 34 - Terms Anatomical “planes” Frontal plane (coronal): Cuts your body into front and back halves A line that cuts across your body from 1 shoulder to the other
  • Slide 35 - Terms Anatomical “planes” Transverse plane: cuts across your body perpendicular or at a right angle to your height Divides your body into UPPER and LOWER portions A cut across your belt line, or if a hula-hoop cut you in half
  • Slide 36 - Terms Anatomical “planes” Note that the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes do not necessarily have to CUT YOU IN HALF There are times when these “cuts” are made in organs Like the sagittal plane of the leg, or a sagittal plane of an eyeball…these wouldn’t cut your body in half, but they’d cut that organ in half
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  • Slide 38 - Terms “Directional” terms Used to describe the “location” or “direction” on your body Usually to describe the location of 1 organ to another More “scientific” way of saying that your heart is “above your stomach, and in front of in front of your lungs”
  • Slide 39 - Terms “Directional” terms Ventral: towards your front “your nose is ventral to your ears” Dorsal: towards your back “your ears are dorsal to your nose” Anterior: towards your front Like “ventral”… “your nose is anterior to your ears” Posterior: towards your back Like “dorsal” … “your ears are posterior to your nose”
  • Slide 40 - Terms “Directional” terms Trick question: which directional term (ventral or dorsal) are your nails facing (or which side of your body are your nails on)? Hint: think “anatomical position”
  • Slide 41 - Terms “Directional” terms Trick question: which directional term (ventral or dorsal) are your nails facing (or which side of your body are your nails on)? Nails are on your dorsal surface Recall that the anatomical position calls for your palms to face forward…your nails would face your back If we could get into a truly anatomical position, the soles of your feet would also face forward!
  • Slide 42 - Terms “Directional” terms Superior: “above” something else “Your head is superior to your heart” Inferior: “below” something else “your feet are inferior to your hands” Note: “superior” and “inferior” refer to the position when you are in the “anatomical position” (standing up)
  • Slide 43 - Terms “Directional” terms Medial: Towards the middle “Your heart is medial to your lungs” “Your nose is medial to your ears” Lateral: Away from the middle (towards a side) “Your arms are lateral to your heart” “Your ears are lateral to your nose” Ipsilateral = on the same side: “your right arm and right leg are ipsilateral” Contralateral = on opposite sides: “your arms are contralateral to each other”
  • Slide 44 - Terms “Directional” terms Proximal: closer to the origin or attachment point “Your elbow is proximal to your shoulder” “Your knee is proximal to your hip” Distal: Farther from the origin or attachment point “Your wrist is distal to your shoulder” “Your ankle is distal to your hip”
  • Slide 45 - Terms “Directional” terms Superficial: Close to the body surface (when looking from the inside towards the skin) “You can see superficial scars because they’re on the surface” “You can see superficial bruises because they’re close to the surface” Deep: Closer to the inside of the body (farther from the surface of the body) “Bones are deep to the muscle”
  • Slide 46 - Terms Body regions: Used to denote specific regions of the body (arms, legs, ankles etc.) Body is divided into 2 main regions during an exam (physical) Axial: head, neck, torso (trunk) Trunk is subdivided into thoracic and abdominal regions Appendicular: NOT “ your appendix”…your appendages Extremities…arms, legs, limbs
  • Slide 47 - Terms Axial regions Cephalic: your head Cranial: the back of your head Facial: limited to your face Cervical: front of your neck Nuchal: back of your neck
  • Slide 48 - Terms Axial regions Thoracic: chest Sternal: area in the center of your chest, the sternum Pectoral: area around your breast Scapular: area around your shoulder blades (on your back) Interscapular: area between both of your shoulder blades (on your back) Vertebral: area of your spine (on your back)
  • Slide 49 - Terms Axial regions Abdominal: abdomen, usually divided into 4 quadrants Right upper quadrant: Your upper right Right lower quadrant Left upper quadrant Left lower quadrant
  • Slide 50 - Terms Axial regions Abdominal: Can also be divided into 9 regions like a tic-tac-toe grid If you draw 2 lines from the middle of your collarbone down to your pelvic bone = midclavicular lines Subcostal line = line that runs horizontally (across) the bottom of your sternum Also runs through the cartilage that holds your 10th rib together Intertubercular line: line that runs horizontally (across) the “points” on your pelvic bone (the boney points on your hips)
  • Slide 51 - Lateral regions Lateral regions Also called “lumbar region” Also called “iliac region” Also called “pubic region”
  • Slide 52 - Terms Terms: “Sub-” = below (submarine) Subcostal = below ribs “Inter-” = between Intertubercul line = between the swells of your tuberculs (the points on your pelvis) “Hypo-” = below (hypovolemic…hypo-osmotic) Hypochondriac = below the chondria of your rib (no, not someone who doesn’t go to the doctor for anything) “Inguin-” = groin “Epi-” = around, above or over Epigastric = above / around the stomach “Ante-” = before, in front of Antebrachial = before the arm
  • Slide 53 - Terms Appendicular regions Remember that these are your appendages (arms and legs), not your appendix! Also called limbs or extremities Divided into: Upper limbs Lower limbs
  • Slide 54 - Terms Appendicular regions Upper limbs Axillary: armpit region Brachium: upper arm (bicep area) Technically, your “arm” is the brachium ONLY (the upper limb…what’s between your elbow and shoulder) Antebrachium: forearm (“before the arm”) Carpus: wrist (“carpal tunnel”) Manus: hand Digits: fingers
  • Slide 55 - Terms Appenddicular regions Lower limbs Gluteal: buttocks (where your leg enters your pelvis) Similar to the axillary (armpit), except for your legs Thigh: Where your femur, quad and hamstring muscles are located Attached to your pelvis Crus: the “leg” proper Tarsus: your ankles Pes: foot Digits: toes
  • Slide 56 - Terms Body cavities: within each region, there are a number of internal cavities Organs within the internal cavities are called “viscera” 2 major cavities Dorsal cavity: your head and spine (the cavity along your head and back) Ventral cavity: your chest, abdomen and pelvic cavities (the cavities in your chest, abdomen and pelvis)
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  • Slide 58 - Terms Dorsal body cavity 2 subdivisions: (recall the previous slide) Cranial cavity: enclosed by your skull (brain case) Contains your brain Vertebral cavity: enclosed by the spinal column Note: not the “spinal chord”…that’s the neural tissue that runs inside the spinal column…the spinal column is the bone part (it’s like a tube) Lined by 3 layers of membrane = “meninges” Soft tissue that protects the neural tissue from the bone
  • Slide 59 - Terms Ventral body cavity Split during fetal development into the thoracic and abdominal cavity Separated by the diaphragm Remember terminology: thoracic cavity is “superior” to the abdominal cavity…abdominal cavity is “inferior” to the thoracic cavity Both cavities are lined by serous membrane Secrete substance similar to blood serum…hence the name “serous” = serum
  • Slide 60 - Terms Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity = 3 regions: Right, left and median (middle) Separated by the “mediastinum” Right and left = lungs Lined by a 2-layered membrane = pleura Rib-side membrane = parietal pleura Lung-side membrane = visceral pleura Each membrane separated by a fluid space = pleural cavity, which contains pleural fluid It is more common to call the right and left cavities “pleural cavities”
  • Slide 61 - ppt slide no 61 content not found
  • Slide 62 - “Pleurisy”: when the pleura get inflamed If this happens, the parietal and visceral pleura will rub against each other, and this is quite painful…it gets painful to breathe
  • Slide 63 - Terms Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity = 3 regions: Median portion or mediastinum Esophagus, trachea, heart, thymus and the major blood vessels leading to and from the heart Heart is enclosed by a 2 layered membrane = “pericardium” Parietal pericardium = “outside” membrane, closest to the sternum Visceral pericardium = the “heart side” membrane Separated by pericardial cavity, and pericardial fluid
  • Slide 64 - “Pericarditis”: when the pericardium gets inflamed Like pleurisy, this can make breathing painful, and almost feel like one is having an heart attack.
  • Slide 65 - Terms Ventral body cavity Abdominal-pelvic cavity 2 “cavities” although not separated by any membrane per se Abdominal cavity = digestive organs, kidneys, ureter Pelvic cavity = bladder, rectum, reproductive organs Think of the pelvic cavity as a “bowl” that holds the bladder, rectum and reproductive organs (all the “uncomfortable-to-talk-about stuff”)
  • Slide 66 - ppt slide no 66 content not found
  • Slide 67 - Terms Ventral body cavity Abdominal-pelvic cavity Peritoneum: moist, serous (serum-like) membrane Parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominal cavity Visceral peritoneum covers most of the stomach, intestines and liver The peritoneal cavity = the space between the visceral and parietal membrane layers Has peritoneal fluid
  • Slide 68 - Terms Ventral body cavity Abdominal-pelvic cavity Peritoneum: moist, serous (serum-like) membrane Intestinal tract is connected to the dorsal abdominal wall by a clear membrane called “mesentery” This is where the blood enters and leaves the intestinal tract Mesentery is a specialized region of the peritoneum (if you could pull out the peritoneum like a table cloth, you would also pull out the mesentery)
  • Slide 69 - Terms Ventral body cavity Abdominal-pelvic cavity Mesentery: specialized region of the peritoneum that surrounds the intestinal tract When “wrapped” around the intestinal “tube”, called “serosa” (the outer surface of the intestinal tract…what you see when you cut open the abdomen) In the colon, this region is called “mesocolon” The “visceral peritoneum” consists of the mesentery and serosa (including the mesocolon)
  • Slide 70 - Terms Ventral body cavity Abdominal-pelvic cavity There is also a specialized fatty membrane, with a large number of blood vessels that hangs from the stomach (inferolateral) like a drape or skirt over the intestines = “greater omentum” Often used to “cover” regions of the intestine that have been injured (if you cut out a portion of intestine, the omentum will “migrate” and cover it) There is also a smaller version of this membrane that hangs between the stomach and liver = “lesser omentum”
  • Slide 71 - Saggital section
  • Slide 72 - Transverse section
  • Slide 73 - Terms Organ systems Systems for protection, structural support and movement Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system Systems for internal communication Neural system Endocrine system Systems for fluid transport Circulatory system Lymphatic system
  • Slide 74 - Terms Organ systems Systems for defense Immune system Systems for input and output Respiratory system Urinary system Digestive system Reproduction Reproductive system
  • Slide 75 - Terms Terms: “Viscus” = body organ “Pleur-” = side, rib side “Pariet-” = wall The “parietal pleura” is the wall facing the ribs “Mediastinum-” = middle “Peri-” = around The “pericardium” is the membrane around the heart (cardium) “Retro-” = behind Kidneys are “retroperitoneal”…they’re behind the peritoneum “Mes-” = in the middle The “mesentery” is in the middle of the intestine, where the blood vessels lie “Omentum” = covering

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