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Slide 1 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen
Slide 2 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving
Slide 3 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics
Slide 4 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate
Slide 5 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea)
Slide 6 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N
Slide 7 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response
Slide 8 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4
Slide 9 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down.
Slide 10 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years
Slide 11 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN
Slide 12 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN
Slide 13 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100%
Slide 14 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69%
Slide 15 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo
Slide 16 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25%
Slide 17 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add
Slide 18 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules
Slide 19 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough?
Slide 20 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in
Slide 21 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea
Slide 22 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures
Slide 23 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture
Slide 24 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient
Slide 25 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient Sulfur Coatings Break Down Solid Urea Solid Urea Sulfur Coating H2O Dissolved Urea
Slide 26 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient Sulfur Coatings Break Down Solid Urea Solid Urea Sulfur Coating H2O Dissolved Urea SCU Contains Intact and Breached Particles, Thin and Thick Coatings
Slide 27 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient Sulfur Coatings Break Down Solid Urea Solid Urea Sulfur Coating H2O Dissolved Urea SCU Contains Intact and Breached Particles, Thin and Thick Coatings IBDU Releases N Based on Solubility Urea NH4 H2O Urease Root
Slide 28 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient Sulfur Coatings Break Down Solid Urea Solid Urea Sulfur Coating H2O Dissolved Urea SCU Contains Intact and Breached Particles, Thin and Thick Coatings IBDU Releases N Based on Solubility Urea NH4 H2O Urease Root Release Depends on Granule Size
Slide 29 - Slow Release = Controlled Release eg CRN = Controlled Release Nitrogen Why Use Slow Release Fertilizers? More uniform growth response No growth surge Longer growth response Less chance of burn Less leaching of nitrate Labor saving Uncoated Slow Release Fertilizers Urea formaldehyde (UF) Methylene urea (MU) Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) Natural organics Ureaform and Methylene Urea Very similar materials chemically Mostly granular, some liquids about 40% N, 70% WIN (28% N for liquids, all soluble) Formed by reacting urea and formaldehyde = chains of alternating C and N Main difference is chain length, and as a result, mineralization rate Products Formolene 30-0-2 FLUF 18-0-0 Nitro 26 CRN 26-0-0 Nitroform (Powder Blue, Blue Chip) 38-0-0 CoRoN 28-0-0 (25% of total N is urea) Different Chain Lengths Methylene Urea N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Urea Formaldehyde N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N-C-N Ureaform and Methylene Urea Designed to release N for 8-12 weeks Contains unreacted urea, fast greening Requires soil microbial activity temperature sensitive, soil at 78o F is four times as active as soil at 42o F moisture sensitive Seasonal response Mineralization The decomposition of complex, N-containing organic molecules and the resulting release of NH4 MU, UF Chain Length Determines Solubility The longer the chain, the less soluble it is, and the slower it will be mineralized. Some may be so long that they are essentially insoluble, and won’t break down. N Release from UF, MU Determined by Solubility Test Water soluble vs Water insoluble fractions: CWSN, cold water soluble N, is soluble at 25o C, is quickly available to the turf. Includes unreacted urea and short chain molecules CWIN, cold water insoluble N. What remains insoluble at 25o C. Longer chain, N is released slower, over a period of several weeks HWIN, N insoluble at 100o C. Longest chain, N released over months or years 100 grams CRN in Stir 71 grams out How Much Dissolves at 25o C? 100 - 71 = 29 grams (29%) CWSN and 71 grams (71%) CWIN 71 grams CRN in Stir 22 grams out How Much Dissolves at 100o C? Thus, in 100 g of CRN, there are 22 g HWIN Activity Index, AI Basically the fraction of CWIN that goes into solution in hot water. It estimates the slow-release value of the fertilizer CWIN - HWIN CWIN Fertilizers with a higher AI have increased N solubility, better slow-N release characteristics. UF should have an AI of > 40% X 100% Summary CWSN - 29% CWIN - 71% HWIN - 22% Activity Index = CWIN - HWIN CWIN = 71% - 22% 71% X 100% X 100% = 69% CRN Sources* Vary Which Will Give Longer Response? Formolene 38-0-0 Nutralene 40-0-0 71% HWIN 36% HWIN 11% urea 51% CWIN 18% CWIN 13% urea *Both from Agrevo WSN vs WIN % WIN must be stated on label Expressed as % of the product, not the nitrogen Example: FLUF contains 18% N, and 4.5% WIN. This means that 18-4.5=13.5% of the N is WSN. What % of the N is WIN? 4.5/18=25% IBDU Urea is reacted with isobutyraldehyde Only a single chemical product is formed, not a bunch of different molecules. 31% N, 90% WIN Different sized granules available N release depends on solubility and hydrolysis (IBDU molecule reacts with water and breaks apart), releasing urea. No free urea in IBDU, may need to add IBDU start here Urea breaks down quickly to NH4 IBDU is relatively insoluble, so only small amounts are available at any one time Release sensitive to soil moisture, temperature Release also depends on granule size and contact with soil. Smaller granules release N faster than larger granules Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Chemistry similar to UF, MU Micro-suspension of MU (FLUF) CoRoN, N-Sure; 28%N, 7% as urea and 21% as short chain MU or small ring structure. Get quick and slow release Foliar application? Is slow release slow enough? Liquid Slow Release Fertilizers Easily handled, applied Can be formulated with P and K Some have short storage life Require specialized delivery system Volume of liquid used in application is not enough to move the material down into the root system - must irrigate in Coated Slow Release Fertilizers SCU, sulfur coated urea Polymer coated urea Sulfur Coated Urea Solid urea core, coated with sulfur and wax 30-38% N, depending on coating thickness Coating is not always perfect, having cracks, thin spots, holes, etc. Release determined by 7 day dissolution test; 25-35% are typical figures Polymer Coated Urea Solid urea or other nutrient core, coated with various polymers (“plastics”) Coatings are tough, resist damage, thin Coating chemistry affects membrane properties, release rate Release is due to controlled diffusion, which is fairly constant over time Release depends on coat thickness, chemistry, temperature, moisture Polymer Coatings Remain Intact Water Dissolved Urea Dissolved Urea Water Dissolved Urea Complete Release *Or other nutrient Sulfur Coatings Break Down Solid Urea Solid Urea Sulfur Coating H2O Dissolved Urea SCU Contains Intact and Breached Particles, Thin and Thick Coatings IBDU Releases N Based on Solubility Urea NH4 H2O Urease Root Release Depends on Granule Size Small Granules Release Faster, Shorter