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Slide 1 - Kingdom Animalia Zoology: The Study of Animals
Slide 2 - 6 Characteristics of the Animals 1. Animals are multicellular ……………….. Except for sponges, animal cells are arranged into tissues (a tissue is a group of cells alike in structure and function… such as muscle tissue or brain tissue). Tissues are necessary to produce organs and organ systems.
Slide 3 - 2. Animals are heterotrophs Heterotrophs consume their organic food. Heterotrophs are not capable of making their own foods.
Slide 4 - 3. Animals are diploid The dominant generation in the life cycle is the diploid generation. Their gametes are heterogametes (different sizes); eggs are larger than sperm. Gametes are produced by meiosis. A typical animal life cycle is shown below.
Slide 5 - 4. Animals are motile Heterotrophy often requires motility to capture prey. Animals have motility during at least some part of their life cycle.
Slide 6 - 5. Animals have a period of embryonic development During embryonic development, cells become specialized and form two or three layers of tissues.
Slide 7 - 6. Animal cells lack cell walls Therefore a skeleton is necessary to support the tissues of large animals.
Slide 8 - Classification of the Kingdom Animalia Protozoans Asymmetry Radial Symmetry Protostomes Deuterostomes * No Body Plan Body Radiates from a Central Point Mouth forms at the Blastopore Anus forms at the Blastopore Evolutionary Trend Simple Complex An increase in “Cell Specialization” and “Division of Labor” 1. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) 2. Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Sea Anemone) Bilateral Symmetry Body Plan Includes Anterior and Posterior Ends Dorsal and Ventral Surfaces “Right” and “Left” sides are mirror images Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Coelomates Pseudocoelomates Coelomates Coelomates Acoelomates 3. Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 4. Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) 8. Phylum Arthropoda (Insects, Spiders) 7. Phylum Mollusca (Snails, Clams) 6. Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms) 9. Phylum Echinodermata (Starfish, Sea Urchins) 10. Phylum Chordata *Class Ichthyes *Class Amphibia *Class Reptilia *Class Aves *Class Mammalia Phyla 1-9 are Invertebrates “Animals without backbones” Coelom: body cavity found between two layers of mesoderm. 5. Phylum Rotifera (Rotifers)
Slide 9 - The key to the success of the Animals is their Diversity Diversity is defined as the presence of a wide range of variation. The Diversity of the Animals originates from the variations that occur in their: 1. Tissue Complexity 2. Body Symmetry 3. Cephalization 4. GastroVascular Cavity (GVC) 5. Coelom 6. Segmentation, and 7. Protostomes and Deuterostomes.
Slide 10 - 1. Tissue Complexity Most animals, collectively called the eumetozoa, have closely functioning tissues. Some organisms are diploblastic, have only two cell layers… hydra and jellyfish. Some organisms are triploblastic and three cell layers. The three “germ layers” are the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Another group of animals, the parazoa (sponges) are not organized into true tissues and lack organs.
Slide 11 - Embryonic Germ Layers The three layers of tissues that become established during early embryonic development are called germ layers. They give rise to the body tissues. These layers are ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Slide 12 - Embryonic Germ Layers
Slide 13 - Embryonic Germ Layers The ectoderm forms from the outer layer of cells. It gives rise to the skin and nervous system. The endoderm made of cells that form the tube-like structure in the gastrula. These cells will form the lining of the gut and the major organs are derived from it. Mesoderm forms between the ectoderm and endoderm. It becomes the muscles, connective tissues, skeleton, kidneys, circulatory and reproductive organs.
Slide 14 - 2. Body Symmetry Body Shapes
Slide 15 - Asymmetry Asymmetrical animals have no pattern of symmetry. The simplest animals (sponges) are asymmetrical.
Slide 16 - Radial Symmetry The body parts of a radially symmetrical animal are arranged around a central axis so that each part extends from the center. Animals that exhibit radial symmetry tend to be sessile (immobile). Radial symmetry allows them to reach out in all directions.
Slide 17 - Bilateral Symmetry Only one cut along the longitudinal axis will produce identical halves of a bilaterally symmetrical animal. Bilateral symmetry is best for motile animals. Body Plan Includes Anterior and Posterior Ends Dorsal and Ventral Surfaces “Right” and “Left” sides are mirror images Longitudinal Axis
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Slide 19 - Evolution of Symmetry The evolutionary sequence progressed from asymmetrical animals to radial and then to bilaterally symmetrical animals.
Slide 20 - Evolutionary Changes in the Animal Body 1. Body Cavities 2. Cephalization 3. Segmentation
Slide 21 - 3. Cephalization The term “Cephalo” means “head”. In animals with bilateral symmetry, there is a greater increase in the nerve tissue concentrated in the anterior end (the head) as animals increase in complexity. For example, brains have formed with accessory organs for seeing, hearing, tasting, etc.
Slide 22 - 4. Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) GastroVascular Cavities (GVC) are areas where food is digested. If they have only one opening, the processing is limited. Two openings designate a digestive tract allowing food to be digested more thoroughly. Gastrovascularcavity
Slide 23 - 5. The Coelom: Body Cavity The body cavity is a space that separates the gut and internal organs from the rest of the body. It isolates the internal organs from body-wall movements. It also bathes the internal organs in a liquid through which nutrients and wastes can diffuse.
Slide 24 - Arrangement of Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm An acoelomate animal does not have a body cavity. Digestive cavity
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Slide 26 - A pseudocoelomate animal has a body cavity (called a pseudocoelom) located between endoderm and mesoderm. pseudocoelom Digestive cavity
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Slide 28 - The body cavity of a coelomate animal (called a coelom) is located within the mesoderm. The mesentery holds the gut in place. Digestive cavity Coelom Mesoderm
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Slide 30 - 6. Segmentation Many animals have segmented body parts. In some cases the parts repeat over and over again, as with earthworms. In other animals, the segments are modified, such as with insects… they essentially have 3 segments…. the head, thorax and abdomen. An Earthworm segmentation
Slide 31 - 7. Body Plans: Protostomes and Deuterostomes
Slide 32 - Embryonic Development During early development, the fertilized egg divides, or cleavages, to produce a solid ball of cells. Then, cell migration results in a hollow ball called a blastula.
Slide 33 - Embryonic Development Some cells of the blastula migrate inward producing a gastrula. The opening is the blastopore. The internal cavity is called the archenteron.
Slide 34 - Embryonic Development The Gastrula will become the gut (digestive tract) of the mature animal. In species that have a separate mouth and anus, the tube will eventually extend through the length of the embryo and fuse with the opposite side. One opening will become the mouth, the other will become the anus.
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Slide 36 - ( Blastopore becomes the anus) ( Blastopore becomes the mouth) Blastopore Blastopore
Slide 37 - 3 Major Differences between Protostomes and Deuterostomes
Slide 38 - 6 Major Trends in Evolution 1. multicellularity 2. development of tissues, first none (sponges), then 2 (cnidarians), then 3 3. development of symmetry, first none (sponges), then radial (cnidarians), then bilateral 4. development of a gut, first none (sponges), then sac-like (cnidarians, flatworms), then complete 5. development of a body cavity, first none (flatworms), then a pseudocoelom (roundworms), then a coelom 6. development of segmentation; segmentation evolved in protostomes (annelids and arthropods) independently of that which evolved in deuterostomes.
Slide 39 - Summary of Evolutionary Trends Symmetry Asymmetry Radial Bilateral Gut No Gut Saclike Complete Coelom Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate Embryonic Germ Layers None 2, (tissues, no organs) 3, (tissues and organs)
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Slide 41 - Evolutionary Trends (sponges) (jellyfish, hydra) (flatworms) (roundworms) (rotifers) (clams, snails) (earthworms) (insects, spiders) (starfish, sea urchins) (common name)
Slide 42 - Classification of the Kingdom Animalia Protozoans Asymmetry Radial Symmetry Protostomes Deuterostomes * No Body Plan Body Radiates from a Central Point Mouth forms at the Blastopore Anus forms at the Blastopore Evolutionary Trend Simple Complex An increase in “Cell Specialization” and “Division of Labor” 1. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) 2. Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Sea Anemone) Bilateral Symmetry Body Plan Includes Anterior and Posterior Ends Dorsal and Ventral Surfaces “Right” and “Left” sides are mirror images Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Coelomates Pseudocoelomates Coelomates Coelomates Acoelomates 3. Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 4. Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) 8. Phylum Arthropoda (Insects, Spiders) 7. Phylum Mollusca (Snails, Clams) 6. Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms) 9. Phylum Echinodermata (Starfish, Sea Urchins) 10. Phylum Chordata *Class Ichthyes *Class Amphibia *Class Reptilia *Class Aves *Class Mammalia Phyla 1-9 are Invertebrates “Animals without backbones” Coelom: body cavity found between two layers of mesoderm. 5. Phylum Rotifera (Rotifers)
Slide 43 - Kingdom Animalia Survey
Slide 44 - 1. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
Slide 45 - Phylum Porifera (Sponges) (exit for water) (digest and distribute food) (skeleton) Choanaocyte *** Sponges are Parazoans: they contain NO true tissues *** Sponges are filter feeders
Slide 46 - 2. Phylum Cnidaria Jellyfish, Corals, and other Stingers
Slide 47 - General Characteristics Simple body plan-bag shaped organism Radially symmetrical organization Consists of a mouth and a sac-like cavity Lacks an anus The mouth is surrounded by a ring of tentacles The cavity in the center of the gut, called the gastrovascular cavity.
Slide 48 - Two Body Forms Polyps - attached to a surface - ex: sea anemones - mouth points up Medusae - free floating -ex: jellyfish -mouth points down
Slide 49 - The Tissue Layers Inner tissue layer (endoderm): gastrodermis Outer tissue layer (ectoderm): epidermis -contains cnidocysts, the stinging cells Middle layer (lacks a mesoderm): mesoglea (jelly-like substance)
Slide 50 - 3. Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Platyhelminthes consists of three kinds of acoelomate flatworms. 1. Free-living Flatworms: such as planarians, which are carnivorous scavengers. 2. Flukes: are internal, or external, parasites that suck tissue fluids or blood. 3. Tapeworms: internal parasites that live in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates.
Slide 51 - Planaria
Slide 52 - Tapeworm Scolex (head) Young Proglottids Old Proglottids ** tapeworms appear to be segmented, but they are not true “segmented” worms
Slide 53 - 4. Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) • Found in fresh water, marine, moist soil, tissues of plants, and tissues and body fluids of animals • A complete digestive tract is present and nutrients are transported through the body in the pseudocoelomic fluid. • Free-living forms are important in decomposition • Animal parasitic forms can be hazardous to health. (Trichinella spiralis in humans via undercooked infected pork)
Slide 54 - Nematode
Slide 55 - 5. Phylum Rotifera (Rotifers) Rotifers are small, mainly freshwater organisms, although some are marine and others are found in damp soil. Complete digestive system is present. Rotifer refers to the crown of cilia that draws a vortex of water into the mouth.
Slide 56 - Rotifer
Slide 57 - 6. Phylum Mollusca (snails, bivalves (such as clams….have a shell which has two parts), octopuses and squids) In Squids, the shell is reduced and is internal. In octopuses, the shell is entirely absent. Octopuses have a highly developed nervous system with a large, complex brain.
Slide 58 - Snails
Slide 59 - 7. Phylum Annelid (Segmented Worms: includes leeches, earthworms and polychaetes) Leeches are freshwater but some are terrestrial in moist vegetation. Many are carnivorous and feed on small invertebrates, while some attach temporarily to animals to feed on blood. They have 2 suckers, one at each end. Earthworms ingest soil, extract nutrients in the digestive system and deposit undigested material (mixed with mucus from the digestive tract) as casts through the anus. Important to farmers as they till the soil and castings improve soil texture. Polychaetae drift and swim in the plankton, some crawl along the sea floor, and many live in tubes they construct by mixing sand and shell bits with mucus. Tube-dwellers include the fanworms that feed by trapping suspended food particles in their feathery filters which are extended from the tubes.
Slide 60 - Phylum Annelid (Segmented Worms: includes leeches, earthworms and polychaetes) Fanworm Polychaete Worm
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Slide 63 - 8. Phylum Arthropoda (spiders, insects, crustaceans, and various related organisms) Arthropods have two kinds of life cycles…(1) complete metamorphosis, (2) incomplete metamorphosis. Arthropods have: * jointed appendages, * a well-developed nervous system, * specialized body segments, and * an exoskeleton made of chiton.
Slide 64 - The specialized body segments are the: Head, Thorax and Abdomen
Slide 65 - Incomplete Metamorphosis (immature forms are often called nymphs) Nymphs resemble the adult in form except for being smaller and lacking fully developed wings and sexual organs. Life Cycle: Egg nymph adult
Slide 66 - Complete metamorphosis Immature forms are called larvae (larva, singular). The pupal stage is a transition stage, when the larva is transformed to the adult. Pupa molts to the adult form. Life Cycle: Egg --> larva --> pupa --> adult
Slide 67 - 9. Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars (starfish), sea urchins and sand dollars) Echinoderms are Coelomates Deuterostomes Echinoderms have complete digestive systems Although some adults exhibit radial symmetry, some features are bilateral, as are the body shapes of their larvae.
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Slide 69 - 10. Phylum Chordata The Phylum Chordata consists of animals that exhibit the following four features. In many cases, these features are temporary, appearing only during embryonic development.
Slide 70 - 1. A Notochord A notochord provides support for the body. It is a flexible cord located on the dorsal surface. In most cases, the notochord is replaced by bone during development. Notochord
Slide 71 - 2. A Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord A dorsal hollow nerve cord forms the basis of the nervous system. In some chordates, the nerve cord becomes the brain and spinal cord.
Slide 72 - 3. Pharyngeal Gill Slits Pharyngeal Gill Slits provides channels across the pharynx to the outside of the body. In some chordates, the slits become gills for oxygen exchange, or for filter feeding, while in others, the slits disappear during embryonic development.
Slide 73 - 4. A Muscular Tail A muscular tail extends beyond the digestive system. In many chordates, such as humans, the tail is lost during embryonic development.
Slide 74 - There are Two Groups of Chordates 1. Invertebrate Chordates: includes lancelets and tunicates. 2. Vertebrate Chordates: includes sharks, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Vertebrate Chordates are characteristics by a series of bones, the vertebrae, that enclose the spinal cord.