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Slide 1 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 1 NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD SECTOR
Slide 2 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 2 OUTLINE What is nanotechnology in food? Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Methods to study the engineered nano-materials (ENM) in food How are ENM food quality assured and regulated from field to laboratory?
Slide 3 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 3 What is nanotechnology in food? The RS/RAEng 2004 report Nanotechnologies is defined as: “the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanometre scale” In context of food sector: the nanoscience is the passive observation of food to understand the structure and behaving, and nanotechnologies are: the more active manipulation of food to produce a desire effect.
Slide 4 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 4 Pear and nano-Au Photo: Pears with nano-sized gold by Eom Jung-ui (farmer) and SM Nanotech Inc. South Korea(2009). The pears included 0.05 – 0.14 mg Au/kg, and the prize: 10 Eur / pear. Photo by EPA/Yonhap.
Slide 5 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 5 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Pros With help of nanomaterials and nanoparticles, it is expected to improve materials behaviour or include new properties to the food products i.e. use of reduced salt, fat or sugar i.e increase vitamin and nutrient content or stability (controlled release of encapsulated nutrients, moisture and pH triggered) With nanotechnology to design new applications, to improve the environment and humans well-fare create new flavours (taste masking) and texture to healthier food products improve the shelf-life of food detection of pathogens in food system use of less energy to retain products under frozen or chilled condition
Slide 6 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 6 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Cons increase the complexity of packaging? increase the waste? difficult to recycle? “Smart food wrapper” made of polyester and dye known as Bis(benzoxazolyl)-stilbene (BBS) excimers (A.Pucci, Univ. of Pisa, Italy). (www.nanowerk.com, Nanowerk News, Jan 2007)
Slide 7 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 7 Application of nanomaterial Main application of man-made nanomaterial in food-sector areas: packaging bio-indicators food supplements food additives Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food?
Slide 8 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 8 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food Main application of nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food is to: -alter texture of the food components -encapsulating food components / additives -developing new tastes / sensations -control release of flavours -increase bioavailability of nutritional components i.e. giving the opportunity to have potential indirect or direct food applications with help of nanotechnology.
Slide 9 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 9 Why use nanomaterials and nanoparticles in food? Ref. International Unison of Food Science & Technology (IUFoST) Scientific Information Bulletin, Dec. 2007 Potential indirect food applications Electronics, computing and communications siliconchip, nanosensor, polymer emitting diodes (store, displays), new type of labelling Metallic nanobarcodes particles; Nanoplex Technologies Inc. Embedded into food products/packaging and scanned like bar codes
Slide 10 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 10 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Access more information about the foods: - brand security - supply chain tracking - source - history - storage Nanomaterials /-science develop / improve “smart” materials as food biopolymers, nanocomposites.
Slide 11 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 11 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? D. Parker; MNT Network,UK, Durethan Polyamide (PA) film, layered with layered silica barrier. The SiO2 layers control the diffusion rate of water and gas through the PA film, i.e makes it difficult for O2 (g) to penetrate Exfoliated nanocomposite film has: -improved tensile strength -improved stiffness -low viscosity -increased barrier properties
Slide 12 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 12 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Polylactic acid (PLA) packaging with antibacterial layer, of TiO2, silver or nanoclay. Bioneer HQ: SEM-images of synthesed Silver Nano Colloid particles, Ø ~ 85 -17 nm. Tomimax: For oral use, Antibacterial, virus, fungal, bacteria etc. !!
Slide 13 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 13 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Ref. Internationa Unison of Food Science & Technology (IUFoST) Scientific Information Bulletin, Dec. 2007 . Parker D, MNT for food&Packaging, MNT Network, UK Potential direct food applications Nanostructures in food may enhance good food quality Food protein has naturally globular structures of Ø 1 – 10 nm. J.F. Graveland –Bikker; Trends in Food-Science and Technology, 2006, Milk protein where α- lactalbumin, is hydrolysed into nanotubes in presence of Ca2+ self- assembly nanotubes made by (aerobic) of hydrolysis Bacillus licheniformis. withstand pasteurisation and the nanotubes are strong and stiff. Incorporation of drugs, vitamins into nanotubes. need of less protein in food and used as gelation agent.
Slide 14 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 14 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Cochleates of phospholipid layer (soya bean) stacked sheet and rolled to spiral form of Ø 50 nm (CaCl2 is added dropwise to liposome suspension causing the liposomes to fuse) Cochleates are able to transport liposomes or colloidal particles. And they are accepted as food products. Schematic representation of nanocochleate structure. Copyright BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc.
Slide 15 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 15 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? D. Parker; MNT Network,UK,Omega-3 fatty acid cochleates (centre as powdered form) and baked goods with omega-3/ Nanocochleate
Slide 16 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 16 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Nanoencapsulated food Microencapsulated food ingredients (substances, additives) is vastly used in health food area. Mask the taste and odour and enhance the flavour D. Parker, MNT Network, UK, New natural and synthetic polymer capsules (from milli-to nano-meter size). Durarome®, Flexarome®, FirCaps®and FirCryst®are examples of commercial available systems Other example of encapsulating is vitamins, liquids, nano-silver and nano-gold or live probiotic microbes to promote healthy gut function.
Slide 17 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 17 Why use nanomaterial and nanoparticles in food? Nutraceuticals - used as delivery vehicles for vitamins, antioxidants, antimicrobials - nanocages or nanoclusters, Ø < 100 nm. -claims to enhance absorption and bioavailability in the body Shenzhen, China: Nano-selenium-enriched Nanotea, www.nanowerk.com
Slide 18 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 18 Methods to study the engineered nano-materials (ENM) in food Table 1: Parameters for characterisation of ENM
Slide 19 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 19 Methods to study ENM in food Currently used analytical methods in food Light scattering, Microscopy Spectrometry Chromatography Size separation techniques Surface characterisation No ”gold standard” method for identification of various ENM:s or NP:s properties Not validated for ENM:s matricies Validated reference materials: SiO2 (IRMM-304) and Au (NIST CRM 8011, 8012 and 8013) New reference NP:s material: Ag in chicken meat, SiO2 in tomato soup, C60 in edible oil, organic NP:s in beverage
Slide 20 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 20 How are ENM food quality assured? NP:s are controlled through the conventional Food Sector Legislation General Principles of Food Law Regulation EC/178/2002 Used tools are the description of composition, product-labelling and trade-documents Novel Food Regulation Regulation EC/258/97 applies to novel food and food ingredients. Is now revised to bring nano-technologies / nanomaterials into the regulation
Slide 21 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 21 Are ENM in food regulated? Food Additives Regulated under Directive 89/107/EC and EC/1333/2008 Only authorised additives may be used in food EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) has launched a scientific opinion ”Guidance for the risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food and feed chain”. EFSA Journal 2011;9(5):2410, p. 1-36 No application of today has been made on nano-modified food in EU or in Finland.
Slide 22 - EURACHEM Workshop 21.5.2013 Dr. Liv Kukkonen, Evira 22 SUMMARY Definition of nanotechnology in context of food Use of nanomaterials and nanoparticles and their application in food Methods and challenges of ENM measurement in food Food quality and regulation of engineered nano-materials Thank you!