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Slide 1 - Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS 05/2007
Slide 2 - Overview What are vitamins? Categories of vitamins Functions Food sources Deficiencies What are minerals? Categories of minerals Antioxidants
Slide 3 - Overview (continued) Phytonutrients Functional Foods Food Labels Activity
Slide 4 - What are vitamins? Complex substances that regulate body processes Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in reactions No calories, thus no energy
Slide 5 - Categories
Slide 6 - Vitamin A (and carotenoids) Functions: Normal vision Protects from infections Regulates immune system Antioxidant (carotenoids) Food sources: Liver Fish oil Eggs Fortified milk or other foods Red, yellow, orange, and dark green veggies (carotenoids)
Slide 7 - Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin) Functions: Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus Helps deposit those in bones/teeth Regulates cell growth Plays role in immunity Sources: Sunlight (10 – 15 mins 2x a week) Salmon with bones Milk Orange juice (fortified) Fortified cereals
Slide 8 - Vitamin E Functions: Antioxidant, may lower risk for heart disease and stroke, some types of cancers Protects fatty acids and vitamin A Sources: Vegetable oils Foods made from oil (salad dressing, margarine) Nuts Seeds Wheat germ Green, leafy veggies
Slide 9 - Vitamin K Functions: Helps blood clot Helps body make some other proteins Sources: Body can produce on its own (from bacteria in intestines) Green, leafy veggies Some fruits, other veggies, and nuts
Slide 10 - Thiamin (B1) Functions: Helps produce energy from carbs Sources: Whole-grain and enriched grain products Pork Liver
Slide 11 - Riboflavin (B2) Functions: Produce energy Changes tryptophan (amino acid) into niacin Sources: Liver Yogurt and milk Enriched grains Eggs Green, leafy veggies
Slide 12 - Niacin Functions: Helps body use sugars/fatty acids Helps enzymes function normally Produces energy Sources: Foods high in protein typically (poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes) Enriched and fortified grains
Slide 13 - Pyridoxine (B6) Functions: Helps body make non-essential amino acids Helps turn tryptophan into niacin and serotonin Help produce body chemicals (insulin, hemoglobin, etc) Sources: Chicken Fish Pork Liver Whole grains Nuts Legumes
Slide 14 - Folate (folic acid) Functions: Produces DNA and RNA, making new body cells Works with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin May protect against heart disease Lowers risk of neural tube defects in babies Controls plasma homocystine levels (related to heart disease) Sources: Fortified and enriched grains and breakfast cereals Orange juice Legumes Green, leafy veggies Peanuts Avacados
Slide 15 - Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Functions: Works with folate to make RBC’s In many body chemicals and cells Helps body use fatty acids/amino acids Sources: Animal products Meat Fish Poultry Eggs Milk, other dairy
Slide 16 - Biotin Functions: Produces energy Helps body use proteins, carbs, and fats from foods Sources: Wide variety of foods Eggs Liver Wheat germ Peanuts Cottage cheese Whole grain bread
Slide 17 - Pantothenic Acid Helps produce energy Helps the body use proteins, fat, and carbs from food Sources: Found in almost all foods Meat, poultry, fish Whole grain cereals Legumes Milk Fruits, veggies
Slide 18 - Vitamin C Functions: Helps produce collagen (connective tissue in bones, muscles, etc) Keeps capillary walls, blood vessels firm Helps body absorb iron and folate Healthy gums Heals cuts and wounds Protects from infection, boosts immunity Antioxidant Sources Citrus fruits Other fruits, veggies
Slide 19 - Deficiencies Rickets (children and vitamin D) Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D) Scurvy (vitamin C) Night blindness (vitamin A) Beriberi (thiamin)
Slide 20 - What are minerals? Regulate body processes Give structure to things in the body No calories (energy) Cannot be destroyed by heat
Slide 21 - Categories of minerals Major minerals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) Trace minerals Chromium Copper Flouride Iodine Iron Manganese Selenium Zinc
Slide 22 - Calcium Bone building Muscle contraction Heart rate Nerve function Helps blood clot
Slide 23 - Phosphorus Generates energy Regulate energy metabolism Component of bones, teeth Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair) Almost all foods, especially protein-rich foods, contain phosphorus
Slide 24 - Magnesium Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions) Maintains cells in nerves, muscles Component of bones Best sources are legumes, nuts, and whole grains
Slide 25 - Electrolytes Chloride: Fluid balance Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses Potassium Maintains blood pressure Nerve impulses and muscle contraction Sodium Fluid balance Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses Regulates blood pressure
Slide 26 - Electrolytes Sources: Salt (sodium chloride) Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken, nuts (potassium)
Slide 27 - Iron Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen Brain development Healthy immune system Sources: Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme) Better absorbed from heme Consume vitamin C with non-heme Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc.
Slide 28 - Antioxidants Slow or prevent damage to body cells May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar) Vitamin C Vitamin E Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains
Slide 29 - Phytonutrients Phyto – plant “Spark” body processes that may fight, or reduce risk for some diseases Fruits/veggies Examples: Carotenoids Lutein Lycopene Flavanols Prebiotics/probiotics Soybeans For more information: see page 109 in the ADA Complete Food and Nutrition Guide
Slide 30 - Functional Foods Foods that provide benefits beyond basic nutrition Phytonutrients Prebiotics/probiotics Fatty fish/omega 3’s Soy protein Oats (heart-healthy) Flaxseed
Slide 31 - Food Labels Must list vitamins A, C, calcium, iron May list others (potassium, folate, riboflavin, etc.)
Slide 32 - Activity Time