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Published on : Feb 11, 2014
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Slide 1 - Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. Examine the various approaches to studying tourism. Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries. Know the benefits and costs of tourism. Learning Objectives
Slide 2 - Definition of Tourism Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.
Slide 3 - UNWTO Definition of Tourism Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
Slide 4 - Visitor A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Slide 5 - Classification of Travelers (1) Tourists in international technical definitions. (2) Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. (4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. (5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads.
Slide 6 - The Tourism Phenomenon: Components of tourism and tourism management
Slide 7 - Geography Psychology Source: adapted from Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Study of Tourism: Choices of Discipline and Approach. Disciplinary inputs to the tourism field
Slide 8 - In 2008 it is estimated to account for some: $5.9 trillion of Economic Activity 238.3 million jobs In 2018 it is estimated to account for : $10.9 trillion of Economic Activity 296.3 million jobs Travel and Tourism -- World’s Largest Industry Source: WTTC
Slide 9 - Travel and Tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries. By 2018 Travel & Tourism is expected to account for: *$10.9 trillion *296.3 million employees Growth depends on enlightened government policy Travel and Tourism Can Grow by 4% per year Source: WTTC
Slide 10 - World’s Top 5 Tourism Destinations 2006 International Tourist Arrivals Rank, (million) % Change 2006 Country 2006 2006/05 1 France 79.1 4.2 2 Spain 58.5 4.5 3 United States 51.1 -3.8 4 China 49.6 6.0 5 Italy 41.1 12.4 Visit UNWTO’s web site for 2008 figures which are to be available in June 2009 Source: UNWTO
Slide 11 - World’s Top 5 Tourism Earners 2006 International Tourism Receipts Rank, (US$ billion) % Change 2006 Country 2006 2006/05 1 United States 85.7 4.8 2 Spain 51.1 6.5 3 France 46.3 5.6 4 Italy 38.1 7.6 5 China 33.9 15.7 Source: UNWTO
Slide 12 - Tourism: What it Means to the U.S. Economy Travel spending in U.S. is projected to total $721.9 billion in 2006. Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry. Tourism is the nation’s largest service export. Over 7.5 million Americans employed directly in the travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16 million jobs. Tourism is the first, second, or third largest employer in 29 states. Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year. Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged. Source: Travel Industry Association of America (TIA)
Slide 13 - Can be developed with local products and resources Diversifies the economy Tends to be compatible with other economic activities Spreads development High multiplier impact Increases governmental revenues Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases Incomes Increases GNP Can be built on existing infrastructure Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry
Slide 14 - Broadens educational and cultural horizons Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living Justifies environmental protection and improvement Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population Benefits of Tourism - Social
Slide 15 - Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination Promotes a global community Promotes international understanding and peace Benefits of Tourism - Cultural
Slide 16 - Develops excess demand Results in high leakage Creates difficulties of seasonality Causes inflation Can result in unbalanced economic development Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic
Slide 17 - Creates social problems Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution Degrades the cultural environment Threatens family structure Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts Creates misunderstanding Creates conflicts in the host society Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems Disadvantages of Tourism - Social © John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2009