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Slide 1 - Fault-Tolerance in Cloud Computing Systems* Yi Pan Georgia State University Atlanta, Georgia *Joint work with N. Xiong, A. Vanderberg, and A. Rindos
Slide 2 - Know exact case for the routers group: If, better for packets transmission Otherwise, miss packets, reduce QoS of packets transmission Networks resource are not extensive shared (partly shared) Traditional network application Router
Slide 3 - What is a cloud? Definition [Abadi 2009] shift of computer processing, storage, and software delivery away from the desktop and local servers across the network and into next generation data centers hosted by large infrastructure companies, such as Amazon, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, or Sun
Slide 4 - Dynamic cloud-based network model North Carolina State University VCL model http://vcl.ncsu.edu/ User/applications VCL Software and Management nodes Servers
Slide 5 - Dynamic cloud-based network model U.S. southern state education Cloud, sponsored By IBM, SURA & TTP/ELC
Slide 6 - Types of Cloud Service According to architectural structure [Sun 2009] Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Software as a Service (SaaS) Database solution Database as a Service (DaaS)
Slide 7 - Cloud Computing as A Service [9]
Slide 8 - Cloud Services Stack
Slide 9 - ppt slide no 9 content not found
Slide 10 - Background GSU is deploying VC as a solution alternative to traditional student computing labs VC as a solution to support researchers: where researchers request computing environments that may be non-standard configurations not readily available Some VCL related areas of interest are: Network control and security; dynamic virtual local area networks (VLANS) and VLAN control; support for high-performance computing (HPC); resource allocation between HPC and other services.
Slide 11 - PlanetLab is a global network supports the development of new network services consists of 1076 nodes at 494 sites. While lots of nodes at any time are inactive do not know the exact status (active, slow, offline, or dead) impractical to login one by one without any guidance An example: PlanetLab
Slide 12 - In distributed systems, applications often need to determine which processes are up (operational) and which are down (crashed) This service is provided by Failure Detector (FD) [Sam Toueg] Fast Accuracy Connection Scalable … Dynamic cloud-based network analysis ◇servers active and available, while others busy or heavily loaded, and the remaining are offline for various reasons. ◇ Users expect the right and available servers to complete their requirements; Failure detection is essential to meet users' expectations
Slide 13 - Difficulty of designing FD clock synchronous reliable communication process period and communication delay are bounded. clock asynchronous unreliable communication upper bound is unknown Arrival time of data becomes unpredictable; Hard to know if the monitored system works well. Easy case 1: Actual application 2:
Slide 14 - A general application Network environment: QoS requirements: Administrator or Users Detection Time, Mistake Rate Query Accuracy Probability
Slide 15 - Important applications of FD FDs are at core of many fault-tolerant algorithms and applications Group Membership Group Communication Atomic Broadcast Primary/Backup systems Atomic Commitment Consensus Leader Election ….. FDs are found in many systems: e.g., ISIS, Ensemble, Relacs, Transis, Air Traffic Control Systems, etc.
Slide 16 - 1. Failure Detectors (FDs) FD can be viewed as a distributed oracle for giving a hint on the operational status of processes. FDs are employed to guarantee continuous operation: To reduce damage in process groups network systems. Used to manage the health status, help system reduce fatal accident rate and increase the reliability. Find crash server, be replaced by other servers
Slide 17 - 1. Failure Detectors (FDs) Definition: can be viewed as a distributed oracle for giving a hint on the state of a process. Application: is cornerstone of most techniques for tolerating or masking failures in distributed systems. Problems: high probability of message loss, Change of topology, unpredictability of message delay …
Slide 18 - 1 Problems, Model, QoS of Failure Detectors 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD): JSAC Constant safety margin of Chen FD [30] 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD): ToN Normal Distribution in Phi FD [18-19] 5 Self-tuning FD (S FD): Infocom Self-tunes its parameters 1. Failure Detectors (FDs): Outline
Slide 19 - 1 Introduction 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD) 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD) 5 Self-tuning FD (S FD) 1. Outline of failure detectors
Slide 20 - 1. Failure Detectors (FDs) Importance of FD : Fundamental issue for supporting dependability Bottleneck in providing service in node failure Necessity: To find an acceptable and optimized FD
Slide 21 - Failure Detectors However: Hints may be incorrect FD may give different hints to different processes FD may change its mind (over & over) about the operational status of a process An FD is a distributed oracle that provides hints about the operational status of processes (Chandra-Toueg).
Slide 22 - p q r s t q q q q s s SLOW For example:
Slide 23 - Quality of Service of FD Metrics [30]: Detection Time (DT): Period from p starts crashing to q starts suspecting p Mistake rate (MR): Number of false suspicions in a unit time Query Accuracy Probability (QAP): Correct probability that process p is up The QoS specification of an FD quantifies [9]: - how fast it detects actual crashes - how well it avoids mistakes (i.e., false detections)
Slide 24 - 1 Introduction 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD): Constant safety margin of Chen FD [30] 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD): Normal Distribution in Phi FD [18-19] 5 Kappa FD (Kappa FD): Performance evaluation and analysis [3] 6 Self-tuning FD (S FD): Self-tunes its parameters 1. Outline of failure detectors
Slide 25 - 2. Existing FDs: Chen FD [30] Major drawbacks: a) Probabilistic behavior; b) Constant safety margin: quite different delay high probability of message loss/topology change Dynamic/unpredictable message Variables: EAi+1: theoretical arrival; i+1: timeout delay; Δ(t): sending interval; γ: a constant; : average delay; Not applicable for the actual network to obtain good QoS [30] W. Chen, S. Toueg, and M. K. Aguilera. On the quality of service of failure detectors. IEEE Trans. on Comp., 51(5):561-580, 2002.
Slide 26 - 2. Existing FDs: Bertier FD [16] Major drawbacks: a) No adjustable parameters; b) Large Mistake Rate and Query Accuracy Probability. Related work safety margin dynamically based on Jacobson's estimation of the round-trip time; based on the variable error in the last estimation. Variables: EAk+1: theoretical arrival; k+1: timeout delay; [16] M. Bertier, O. Marin, P. Sens. Implementation and performance evaluation of an adaptable failure detector. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’02), pages 354-363, Washington DC, USA, Jun. 2002.
Slide 27 - 2. Existing FDs: Phi FD [18-19] Major drawbacks: a) Normal distribution isn’t good enough for … b) Improvement for better performance Related work suspicion level, tnow current time; Tlast is the time for most recent received heartbeat. [18] N. Hayashibara, X. Defago, R. Yared, and T. Katayama. The phi accrual failure detector. In Proc. 23rd IEEE Intl. Symp. on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS’04),pages 66-78, Florianpolis, Brazil, Oct. 2004. [19] X. Defago, P. Urban, N. Hayashibara, T. Katayama. Definition and specification of accrual failure detectors. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’05), pages 206 - 215, Yokohama, Japan, Jun. 2005.
Slide 28 - 1 Introduction 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD) 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD): Normal Distribution in Phi FD [18-19] 5 Self-tuning FD (S FD): Self-tunes its parameters Outline of failure detectors
Slide 29 - 3. Our TAM-FD Motivation Basic Chen-FD scheme [1]: Probabilistic behavior; Constant safety margin problem; [1] W. Chen, S. Toueg, and M. K. Aguilera. On the quality of service of failure detectors. IEEE Trans. on Comp., 51(5):561-580, 2002. Tuning adaptive margin FD is presented : Variables: : predictive delay; , : a variable; : a constant, EAi+1: theoretical arrival Bertier FD: Jacobson’s estimation
Slide 30 - 3. TAM-FD Experiment 1 Exp. settings: All FDs are compared with the same experiment conditions: the same network model, the same heartbeat traffic, the same experiment parameters (sending interval time, slide window size (1000), and communication delay, etc.). TAM FD, Phi FD [18-19], Chen FD [30], and Bertier FD [16-17] Environments: Cluster, WiFi, LAN, WAN Small WS means: Save memory and CPU resources, it’s imp. for scalability.
Slide 31 - 3. TAM-FD Experiment 1 Experiment setting: Two computers: p & q Without network breaking down Heartbeats UDP CPU below the full capacity Logged heartbeat time Replayed the receiving time ……
Slide 32 - 3. TAM-FD Exp. WAN (example) WAN exp. settings: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), in Switzerland---JAIST; HB sampling (over one week) Sending 5,845,712 samples; Receiving 5,822,521 samples; Ave. sending rate: 103.501ms; Ave. RTT: 283.338ms; …
Slide 33 - 3. TAM-FD Exp. WAN MR and QAP comparison of FDs in WAN: WS=1000 (logarithmic, aggressive, conservative). TAM FD Chen FD Bertier FD Phi FD TAM FD Chen FD Phi FD Target QoS
Slide 34 - 3. TAM-FD Exp. WAN Results analysis: In aggressive range: TAM FD behaves a little better than the other three FDs (short DT); In conservative range, Chen FD behaves a little better than the other three FDs (long DT).
Slide 35 - 1 Introduction 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD) 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD) 5 Self-tuning FD (S FD): Self-tunes its parameters Outline of failure detectors
Slide 36 - 4. ED FD: Motivation Major drawbacks of Phi FD by… [18-19]: a) Normal distribution isn’t good enough for… b) ED FD has higher slope than Phi FD; Our ED FD: One implementation of an accrual FD Inter-arrival time – Exponential distribution
Slide 37 - 4. ED-FD Motivation 1/2 Statistics: (a) Cluster; (b) WiFi; (c) Wired LAN; (d) WAN (Nunit/Nall ) Min~Max: 50 µs~time unit n1, n2, … ,nk Pi=ni / Nsum Pi~ i n1 n2
Slide 38 - 4. ED-FD Motivation 2/2 Probability distribution vs. inter-arrival time: Phi FD [18]; ED FD (Normal distribution~ Exponential distribution, slope) In sensitive range, Exponential distrib. can depict the network heartbeat clearer
Slide 39 - 4. ED-FD basic principle Basic principle: Suspicion level is defined for accrual: where the F(t) is an exponential distribution function, and one has where t > 0, and
Slide 40 - 4. ED-FD Exp. Wireless1 Experiment 1: MR and QAP vs. DT comparison of FDs in Wireless (logarithmic).
Slide 41 - 4. ED-FD Exp. WAN2 Experiment 2: MR and QAP comparison of FDs in WAN. Rounding error prevent line
Slide 42 - 4. ED-FD Exp. WAN4 Results: In the aggressive range of FD: ED FD behaves a little better than the other three FDs. (short DT, low MR and high QAP) It is obvious that the ED FD is more aggressive than Phi FD, and Phi FD is more aggressive than Chen FD.
Slide 43 - 1 Introduction 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD) 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD) 5 Self-tuning FD (SFD) Outline of failure detectors
Slide 44 - 5. Self-tuning FD Users give target QoS, How to provide corresponding QoS? Chen FD [30] Gives a list QoS services for users -- different parameters For certain QoS service -- match the QoS requirement Choose the corresponding parameters -- by hand. Problem: it is not applicable for actual engineering applications.
Slide 45 - 5. Self-tuning FD Output QoS of FD does not satisfy target, the feedback information is returned to FD;-- parameters Eventually, FD can satisfy the target, if there is a certain field for FD, where FD can satisfy target Otherwise, FD give a response: Output
Slide 46 - 5. Self-tuning FD Basic scheme: Variables: EAk+1: theoretical arrival; SM: safety margin; k+1: timeout delay; α: a constant; Margin
Slide 47 - 5. Self-tuning FD Experimental Results: WAN MR and QAP comparison of FDs (logarithmic). SFD adjusts next freshness point to get shorter TD, led to larger MR. SFD adjusts next freshness point to get shorter MR, led to larger DT
Slide 48 - 5. Self-tuning FD Experimental Results: WAN TD > 0.9, Chen-FD and Bertier-FD have longer TD and smaller MR. TD< 0.25, Chen-FD and Bertier-FD have shorter TD and larger MR. While, SFD adjusts the next freshness point to get shorter TD gradually --- it led to a little larger MR. So, SFD adjusts its parameters by itself to satisfy the target QoS.
Slide 49 - 1 Problems, Model, QoS of Failure Detectors 2 Existing Failure Detectors 3 Tuning adaptive margin FD (TAM FD, JSAC): Constant safety margin of Chen FD [30] 4 Exponential distribution FD (ED FD, JSAC): Normal Distribution in Phi FD [18-19] 5 Self-tuning FD (S FD, Sigcom10): Self-tunes its parameters Contributions For FD (failure detector):
Slide 50 - Future Work Self-tuning FD; Indirection FD; New schemes: different Probability Distribution; New schemes: different architectures; FD-Network: dependable network software in cloud;
Slide 51 - Q & A Thank You!
Slide 52 - 52 Protecting datacenters must first secure cloud resources and uphold user privacy and data integrity. Trust overlay networks could be applied to build reputation systems for establishing the trust among interactive datacenters. A FD technique is suggested to protect shared data objects and massively distributed software modules. The new approach could be more cost-effective than using the traditional encryption and firewalls to secure the clouds. Security and Trust Crisis in Cloud Computing
Slide 53 - Computing clouds are changing the whole IT , service industry, and global economy. Clearly, cloud computing demands ubiquity, efficiency, security, and trustworthiness. Cloud computing has become a common practice in business, government, education, and entertainment leveraging 50 millions of servers globally installed at thousands of datacenters today. Private clouds will become widespread in addition to using a few public clouds, that are under heavy competition among Google, MS, Amazon, Intel, EMC, IBM, SGI, VMWare, Saleforce.com, etc. Effective reliable management, guaranteed security, user privacy, data integrity, mobility support, and copyright protection are crucial to the universal acceptance of cloud as a ubiquitous service. Security and Trust Crisis in Cloud Computing
Slide 54 - Content: Reliable, Performance Distributed file system Bandwidth to Data • Scan 100TB Datasets on 1000 node cluster • Remote storage @ 10MB/s = 165 mins • Local storage @ 50-200MB/s = 33-8 mins • Moving computation is more efficient than moving data • Need visibility into data placement
Slide 55 - Scaling Reliably • Failure is not an option, it’s a rule ! • 1000 nodes, MTBF < 1 day • 4000 disks, 8000 cores, 25 switches, 1000 NICs, 2000 DIMMS (16TB RAM) • Need fault tolerant store with reasonable availability guarantees • Handle hardware faults transparently
Slide 56 - Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) • Data is organized into files and directories • Files are divided into uniform sized blocks (default 64MB) and distributed across cluster nodes • HDFS exposes block placement so that computation can be migrated to data
Slide 57 - Problems of CPU-GPU Hybrid Clusters Scheduling Map tasks onto CPUs and GPUs efficiently is difficult Dependence on computational resource # of CPU cores, GPUs, amount of memory, memory bandwidth, I/O bandwidth to storage Dependence on applications GPU computation characteristic Pros. Peak performance, memory bandwidth Cons. Complex instructions Hybrid Scheduling with CPUs and GPUs to make use of each excellence → Exploit computing resources