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The Risks of Cough Cold Preparations in Young Children

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The Risks of Cough Cold Preparations in Young Children PowerPoint Presentation

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Published on : Dec 06, 2013
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Slide 1 - The Risks of Cough/Cold Preparations to Young Children Michael Shannon, MD, MPH Children’s Hospital Boston Harvard Medical School
Slide 2 - OUTLINE Principles of Pediatric Drug Safety Relevance to cough/cold preparations Sources of Data Categories of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with cough/cold preparation use in children Range of Toxicity
Slide 3 - OUTLINE Principles of Pediatric Drug Safety Relevance to cough/cold preparations Sources of Data Categories of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with cough/cold preparation use in children Range of Toxicity
Slide 4 - OUTLINE Principles of Pediatric Drug Safety Relevance to cough/cold preparations Sources of Data Categories of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with cough/cold preparation use in children Range of Toxicity
Slide 5 - OUTLINE Principles of Pediatric Drug Safety Relevance to cough/cold preparations Sources of Data Categories of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with cough/cold preparation use in children Range of Toxicity
Slide 6 - Principles of Pediatric Drug Safety Extrapolation of adult data to create pediatric doses is fraught with danger Passage of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the Pediatric Research Equity Act have been important The time is now for FDA to begin evaluating agents previously designated “Generally Regarded as Safe”
Slide 7 - Toxicity of Cough/Cold PreparationsSources of Data Poison Centers Medical Examiner reports Published Case Reports FDA CDC State and local agencies
Slide 8 - Toxicity of Cough/Cold PreparationsSources of Data Poison Centers Data from 2001 through 2005 328,441 calls to poison centers about children exposed to cough/cold preparations Includes overdose, interactions and unexpected toxicities Medical Examiner 10 deaths in Ohio (J Anal Tox, 2005) 8 infant deaths from 1999-2005 (J For Sci 2007)
Slide 9 - Toxicity of Cough/Cold PreparationsSources of Data Published case reports More than 10 published reports of toxicity to young children Several fatalities Adverse events included hallucinations, agitation, seizures, and cardiac arrest
Slide 10 - Toxicity of Cough/Cold PreparationsSources of Data Public health authorities FDA 27-year analysis of AERS 401 serious adverse events and 123 deaths CDC Reviewed 3 infant deaths in two states (MMWR, Jan 2007) Over 2 years, 1519 children sent to emergency departments State and local agencies 900 calls about children < 5 in one year (Maryland, 2004) 4 deaths in children under 4 in Baltimore
Slide 11 - Categories of Adverse Drug Events Acute, single overdose By child By parent Chronic overmedication (by parent) “Therapeutic misadventures” (by parent) Drug-host interactions Drug-drug interactions
Slide 12 - Categories of Adverse Drug Events Acute, single overdose By child By parent Chronic overmedication (by parent) “Therapeutic misadventures” (by parent) Drug-host interactions Drug-drug interactions
Slide 13 - Categories of Adverse Drug Events Acute, single overdose By child By parent Chronic overmedication (by parent) “Therapeutic misadventures” (by parent) Drug-host interactions Drug-drug interactions
Slide 14 - Categories of Adverse Drug Events Acute, single overdose By child By parent Chronic overmedication Therapeutic misadventures Drug-host interactions Drug-drug interactions
Slide 15 - Range of Toxicity Cardiovascular Hypertension Tachyarrhythmias Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Arrest Neurologic Neurobehavioral (hallucinations, agitation, psychosis) Seizures Metabolic Metabolic acidosis Undefined
Slide 16 - Range of Toxicity Cardiovascular Hypertension Tachyarrhythmias Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Arrest Neurologic Neurobehavioral (hallucinations, agitation, psychosis) Seizures Metabolic Metabolic acidosis Undefined
Slide 17 - Range of Toxicity Cardiovascular Hypertension Tachyarrhythmias Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Arrest Neurologic Neurobehavioral (hallucinations, agitation, psychosis) Seizures Metabolic Metabolic acidosis Undefined
Slide 18 - Range of Toxicity Cardiovascular Hypertension Tachyarrhythmias Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Arrest Neurologic Neurobehavioral (hallucinations, agitation, psychosis) Seizures Metabolic Metabolic acidosis Undefined
Slide 19 - Conclusions When a treatment is ineffective, its risks - if not zero - will always exceed its benefits