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Slide 1 - Audiometry and Hearing Disorders SPA 4302 Summer 2007
Slide 2 - The Evolution of Audiology “_________”=audire (Latin=to hear) + logos (Greek=the study of) Post-World War II—military aural rehabilitation centers for veterans. Scope of practice grew with changing technology Educational requirements moved from Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree (1960’s) Doctor of Audiology (1990’s) Audiologist—an individual who “is uniquely qualified to provide a comprehensive array of professional services related to the assessment and habilitation/rehabilitation of persons with auditory and vestibular impairments, and to the prevention of these impairments” (American Academy of Audiology, 1997)
Slide 3 - Licensing and Certification Practice of audiology is regulated through license or registration in ______ states Regulation ensures: Audiologists have met a minimum level of educational preparation That a minimum of continuing studies is maintained to ensure competency remains current To obtain licensure: Complete a prescribed course of study Acquire a minimum of 350 hours of clinical practicum Attain a passing score on a national exam in audiology Certification is ___________________- Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC-A) through ASHA American Board of Audiology
Slide 4 - Prevalence/Impact of Hearing Loss ___ million people have hearing impairment ___ million are regularly exposed to hazardous noise levels ___ million have permanent noise-induced hearing loss 6 out of 1000 children are born with a hearing impairment By age 6, ___% of US children have had at least one ear infection Frequent ear infections can significantly impair speech and language development and academic performance For older adults, hearing loss can impact personal relationships and is related to overall poor health, decreased physical activity, and depression Northern and Downs (2002)—for a 1 year-old child with severe hearing impairment and average life expectancy of 75 years, the economic burden can approach $__ million
Slide 5 - Audiology Specialties Medical Audiology ____________ Audiology Pediatric Audiology Dispensing/Rehabilitative Audiology __________ Audiology
Slide 6 - Where do we work? Almost __% of audiologists ID themselves as direct clinical service providers Most audiologists work within a medical environment (physician’s office, hospitals, etc.) The most rapidly growing setting is private practice (largely due to the development of the ____) Other settings: Schools, College/University, Speech & Hearing Center, Residential Home Health Care, Industrial
Slide 7 - Professional Societies American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)—first professional society for audiologists (1947) American Academy of Audiology (AAA)—founded in 1988 Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology Academy of Dispensing Audiologists Educational Audiology Association American Auditory Society Hearing Loss Association of America Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf
Slide 8 - Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear
Slide 9 - Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear
Slide 10 - Pathways of Sound ______ Conduction—sound travels through the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and neural pathways ______ Conduction—sound bypasses the outer ear and middle ear by vibrating the skull mechanically and stimulating the inner ear directly
Slide 11 - AIR CONDUCTION
Slide 12 - Bone Conduction
Slide 13 - Types of Hearing Loss ________ Hearing Loss Hearing by air conduction will be impaired, but hearing by bone conduction will be normal __________ Hearing Loss Hearing by air conduction and bone conduction will be impaired __________ Hearing Loss Hearing by air conduction and bone conduction will be impaired, but hearing loss will be greater by air conduction (Outer/Middle Ear) (Inner Ear/Neural) (Both)
Slide 14 - Hearing Tests Early tests that provided little information: Clapping the hands Making various vocal sounds Ticking of a watch Clicking 2 coins together
Slide 15 - Tuning Fork Tests First used in the 19th Century Tuning forks emit a pure tone at a specific frequency __________ Test—hearing sensitivity of a patient vs. that of the tester _________ Test—patient’s hearing sensitivity by bone conduction vs. by air conduction _______ Test—hearing by bone conduction with/out occlusion _______ Test—lateralization of bone conducted tone: unilateral sensorineural hearing loss-- heard in better ear; unilateral conductive hearing loss – heard in poorer ear